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Iowa Early Learning Standards 3rd edition Section 2: (Standards, Benchmarks, Examples and Adult Supports)

Iowa Early Learning Standards 3rd edition Section 2:

This Standards, Benchmarks, Examples, and Adult Supports section offers each standard within the Area; and the benchmarks, examples of reaching a benchmark, and supports an adult can provide for a child to reach the benchmark.  As with all sections in the IELS, color coding is provided for easy recognition of the Area, and if held in a fanned position, the color is viewed for easy access to the Area. In most cases, the infant and toddler standard and benchmarks are viewed at the top with a list of examples and a short list of potential support to provide for children to reach the benchmark.  The lists are provided to encourage consideration of other examples and supports. The landscape format assists lesson plan development, and promotes conversations by the child care provider with supervisors, parents, and others. Throughout the IELS document, the lower left corner of every page identifies the section and page within the section, and the page number for the entire document is provided in the lower right corner of every page.

Document Date:
Document Text Content:

Standards, Benchmarks,

Examples,

and Adult Supports

Iowa Early Learning Standards 3rd edition

 

 

Social

and

Emotional

Development

 

 

 

Area 1: Social and Emotional Development

 

Self – Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 1.1.IT Infants and toddlers display a positive sense of self.

 

 

Benchmarks: The infant or toddler…

1.1.IT.1 responds to familiar adults’ and children’s interactions using behaviors such as gazing, cuddling, and  accepting assistance.

1.1.IT.2 explores his or her own body.

1.1.IT.3 shows awareness of self, such as responding to own image in mirror.

1.1.IT.4 shows preferences for toys and experiences.

1.1.IT.5 expresses reaction through facial expressions, sounds, and gestures.

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Annie turns her head and smiles when her mother calls her name.

 

Alex kicks the sides of the crib. He looks at his feet and starts to suck on his toes. A caring adult says, “Alex has encontrado los dedos (you found your toes).”

 

Mai looks at the mirror. She smiles, reaches for her reflection, pats her reflection, and pats her face.

 

The toys in the room are accessible to all children. Fatima sees the stacking rings, which she really likes. She takes the stacking toy off a shelf, sits down on the floor, and takes off the rings.

 

Greg picks up a cube and tries to force it through the round hole of a sorting toy. He looks at the cube, looks at the lid, and then puts the cube

through the square hole. He turns to the adult and smiles. A caring adult responds: “You did it, Greg! You found the square hole.”

 

Drew tries to grab a toy from another child. A caring adult intervenes and models the words Drew can use to ask for the toy. The adult offers Drew two similar toys. He chooses one of the toys and begins to play.

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? observe each child and responds based on individual needs throughout daily routines.

? use each child’s name often during play and interactions.

? point out and correctly names each child’s body parts using their home language during daily routines, such as diapering, toileting, and

bathing.

? give opportunities for each child to build an awareness of self and to become familiar through touch, photographs, mirrors, and video and sound recordings.

? provide opportunities for each child to choose toys and/or experiences during playtime.

? express active interest in the experiences and accomplishments of each child.

? support children’s cultural identities by working with family members to support each child’s needs.

? talk positively about each child’s family culture.

 

 

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Area 1: Social and Emotional Development

 

 

Self - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 1.1.PS Children express a positive awareness of self in terms of specific abilities, characteristics, and preferences.

 

Benchmarks: The child…

1.2.PS.1 expresses a positive sense of self in terms of specific abilities.

1.2.PS.2 expresses needs, wants, opinions, and feelings in socially appropriate ways.

1.2.PS.3 demonstrates increasing confidence and independence in a variety of tasks and routines, and expresses pride accomplishments.

1.2.PS.4 recognizes own power to make choices.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Rhonda rides her trike up to Julia and says, “Watch me. I can go fast.” Sage tells a caring adult, “I need to go to the bathroom.”

Alea learns to put on all her winter outdoor clothes by herself. She smiles and tells a nearby adult, “Look, I did it all by myself.”

 

Yesterday, Moses played in the block center and built a tower. Today, he played at the water table. When he was done at the water table, he stated, “I like the water table the best.”

 

At lunch, a caring adult asks Kiera, “Would you like broccoli, carrots, or both with your sandwich?” Kiera responds, “Carrots are my favorite. I want

carrots, please.”

 

After finishing his cereal Max carries his dishes to the sink and places them in the ‘dirty’ tub. He then goes to the sink and washes his hands. “I’m all cleaned up and ready to play!” he announces

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? provide opportunities for each child to develop a sense of his or her physical capabilities.

? talk with and listen respectfully to each child.

? provide each child with safe and stimulating settings, both indoors and outdoors, in which to explore.

? provide each child with opportunities to make meaningful choices and to express preferences throughout the day.

? encourage each child by giving specific feedback which links effort to outcomes and acknowledge achievements.

? model respect for diversity.

? provide each child with opportunities to solve problems on his or her own.

? provide opportunities for each child to express his or her thoughts and feelings about experiences through a variety of methods, including the use of words in his or her home language.

? support children’s cultural identities by working with family members to support children’s needs.

? encourage children’s efforts and provide necessary supports when attempting new skills.

 

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Area 1: Social and Emotional Development

 

 

Self-Regulation - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 1.2.IT Infants and toddlers show increasing awareness of and ability to express emotions in socially and culturally appropriate ways.

 

Benchmarks: The infant or toddler…

1.2.IT.1 indicates need for assistance through actions such as crying, gesturing, vocalizing, using words, or approaching familiar adults.

1.2.IT.2 comforts him or herself when distressed or tired by actions such as sucking, stroking a blanket, or hugging a toy.

1.2.IT.3 begins to express a range and variety of feelings and emotions through body language, facial expressions, actions, and/or verbal responses.

1.2.IT.4 shows increasing ability to recognize own feelings, including simple (such as mad, glad) and complex (such as excited, frustrated, disappointed) feelings.

1.2.IT.5 responds to emotions expressed by others, for example, by comforting another child or crying in response to the cries of others.

1.2.IT.6 begins to control behavior through following simple rules and limits in a variety of settings.

1.2.IT.7 begins to transition between feeling states with guidance from a caring adult.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

 

Caitlin’s mother leaves the room. Caitlin starts to pout and suck her thumb to calm herself. She walks over to a caring adult and holds her hands up. The adult hugs her and says, “It looks like you are sad that mom had to go. She will be back after work.” Caitlin holds on to the adult. The adult speaks to her quietly and Caitlin begins to calm.

 

Jason is tired. He gets his blanket, lies down on his cot, and rubs the binding on the blanket.

 

Lisa starts to clap and smile when she finally gets one block to stack on top of another. Juan, who is sitting next to her playing with his keyboard, looks up, smiles, and claps with her.

 

 

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Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark (continued):

 

Jayden was backing away from a friend when he tripped over his caregiver’s foot and fell. He started crying and looking around. The caregiver said, “Oh Jayden, did that hurt you or scare you?” Jayden looked at the floor, scrunched up his face, and stuck out his bottom lip. “Wait, did that make you mad?” Jayden nodded his head and relaxed his face.

 

La’Chara starts to climb on top of the table. A caring adult guides her down, saying, “You may sit on a chair or on the floor.” La’Chara sits on the

chair.

 

Minh’s dad comes into the room. Minh starts jumping up and down. A nearby, caring adult asks, “Are you excited to see Daddy?” Minh nods her

head yes.

 

Caera and Alex look at a birdhouse in the outdoor nature area and a bird suddenly flies out. Both children begin to cry and run away. The adult responds by hugging them and says, “Oh my, when that bird flew out you must have been frightened. You are both safe. Let’s look in the trees to see if we can find the bird.” Both children look relieved and begin to look for the bird.

 

Gustav does not get to ride the tricycle he wants. He begins stomping his feet and yells, “No, no, no. Mine!” A caring adult puts a hand on his shoulder to calm him, and then takes him by the hand and leads him to the sandbox to play. While walking to the sandbox, the adult says, “it’s okay to feel frustrated that you cannot ride the trike now, but the sandbox is fun, too.” Gustav calms down and begins to play in the sandbox.

 

 

Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? provide a consistent, predictable, caring, and responsive environment for each child.

? respond promptly to each child’s needs.

? model the expression of their own emotions in socially appropriate ways.

? encourage each child to express emotions in socially and culturally appropriate ways.

? set, discuss, remind, and follow through on simple rules and limits.

? provide consistent routines and expectations for daily activities and experiences.

? demonstrate an awareness of cultural differences for expressing feelings.

? respond to child distress by listening to the child while maintaining closeness and a calming, soothing voice.

? inform children when there is a change in routine using a variety of techniques, such as picture cues.

? use feeling words to acknowledge and label each child’s emotions using terms that are familiar to the child.

? need to be aware of conditions that optimize early brain development and share information with caregivers.

 

 

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Area 1: Social and Emotional Development

 

 

Self-Regulation - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 1.2.PS Children show increasing ability to regulate their behavior and express their emotions in appropriate ways.

 

Benchmarks: The child…

1.2.PS.1 demonstrates the ability to monitor his or her own behavior and its effects on others, following and contributing to adult expectations.

1.2.PS.2 persists with difficult tasks without becoming overly frustrated.

1.2.PS.3 begins to accept consequences of his or her own actions.

1.2.PS.4 manages transitions and changes to routines.

1.2.PS.5 states feelings, needs, and opinions in difficult situations without harming self, others, or property.

1.2.PS.6 expresses an increasing range and variety of emotions, and the transitions between feeling states become smoother.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

While Able is playing a letter game on the classroom computer, he looks up and sees another child waiting for a turn on the computer. Able says,

“It will be your turn next.”

 

Rashmita is working on a difficult puzzle. She tries several times to fit each of the pieces together. Even though it is difficult, she keeps working to put it together.

 

Oscar left his art materials out at the table where he was working. An adult walks up to him and says, “Oscar, put away your materials before going

to play somewhere else.” Oscar begins to collect the materials.

 

After lunch, Hyejin washes her hands and lays down to nap without a reminder.

 

Tristan is angry because he can’t have his favorite tricycle. He says to a nearby adult, “I am so mad that Daphne has the trike.”

 

Manuel is playing outside and doesn’t want to go inside. At first he avoids the adult, but when the adult talks to him calmly, he agrees to go inside.

 

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? identify and explain adult expectations while offering each child the opportunity to contribute to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas concerning them.

? assist each child in understanding her or his feelings and the impact on others.

? model empathy and understanding.

? make each child aware of upcoming changes in schedule or routines.

? model self-control.

? give each child words and gestures to express emotions.

? learn key words and phrases in each child’s home language, especially those related to emotions and behavior.

? express own emotions in socially appropriate ways.

 

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Area 1: Social and Emotional Development

 

 

Relationship with Adults - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 1.3.IT Infants and toddlers relate positively with significant adults.

 

Benchmarks: The infant or toddler…

1.3.IT.1 distinguishes between familiar and unfamiliar adults; for example, is comforted by the sight of the familiar adult or the

sound of the familiar adult’s voice.

1.3.IT.2 accepts assistance and comfort from familiar adults.

1.3.IT.3 seeks and maintains contact with familiar adults; for example, by looking at the adult, hearing the adult’s voice, or

touching the adult.

1.3.IT.4 shows discomfort at separations from familiar adults.

1.3.IT.5 seeks help from familiar adults in unfamiliar situations.

1.3.IT.6 explores the environment, both indoors and outdoors, but may return to a familiar adult periodically for security.

1.3.IT.7 begins to imitate or portray roles and relationships.

1.3.IT.8 imitates adult behaviors.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Misha is playing with other children in her infant classroom. Several parents walk in together to pick up their children. Misha looks concerned at first, but then smiles when she sees her mother.

 

As Danny plays in the exam room, the doctor walks in, and Danny reaches for his dad. Dad gives Danny a hug and introduces the doctor. Danny stays close to his dad during the appointment.

 

Jonathan’s mother leaves the room. He follows her to the door and cries.

 

Jerika picks up the stuffed bunny, rubs the bunny’s back, and says, “It okay, it okay.”

 

Miguel hands the box of crackers to the adult to get help opening it.

 

Josephine is at the community playground and goes to the sandbox to play. Every few minutes, she looks over her shoulder to make sure her grandmother is still there.

 

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? interact and intentionally play with each child daily.

? provide stable, consistent, responsive, and sensitive care to each child.

? talk to and hold each child affectionately during caregiving routines and play experiences.

? respond appropriately and responsively to each child’s attempts to make contact.

? help each child transition between care provided by different adults.

? model healthy relationship skills.

? practice primary caregiving and ensure continuity of care.

? limit the number of adults providing care.

? use reflective practice to understand emotional response as the adult interacting with infants, toddlers and their families.

? share information about infant and family relationship development with families.

? support and reinforce parent/guardian strengths, emerging parenting competencies, and positive parent-child interactions.

 

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Area 1: Social and Emotional Development

 

 

Relationship with Adults - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 1.3.PS Children relate positively with significant adults.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

1.3.PS.1 interacts comfortably with familiar adults.

1.3.PS.2 accepts guidance, comfort, and directions from a range of familiar adults in a variety of environments.

1.3.PS.3 expresses affection toward familiar adults.

1.3.PS.4 shows trust in familiar adults.

1.3.PS.5 seeks help, as needed, from familiar adults.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Dalton interacts with each of the adults in his classroom by talking with each of them about what he did over the weekend.

 

Terry is playing outdoors and hesitantly approaches the climber. He looks at a nearby adult, who says, “It’s okay, I will not let you fall.” Terry starts

to climb the ladder.

 

Kia comes into the classroom slowly. Her eyes are downcast and she takes long, deep sighs. A caring adult asks her, “Kia, how are you feeling today?” Kia answers, “Grandma’s in the hospital. I miss her.” The adult responds, “It’s hard for her to be gone.” The adult rubs Kia’s back, saying, “You like spending time with Grandma.” Kia puts her arms around the adult.

 

Michael runs up to his parents when they come to his preschool and gives them a hug. He turns and with a smile, says, “Bye-bye, teacher. I’ll see

you tomorrow.”

 

Mercedes wants to collect pinecones outdoors, but cannot find a container to hold them. She walks up to a caring adult and asks, “Can I have a bucket for these pinecones?”

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? ensure that a small number of consistent, positive, and nurturing adults provide continuity of care and learning experiences.

? intentionally spend time daily with each child to support positive interactions and relationships to build an emotional connection.

? make it a priority to know each child well, and also the people most significant in the child’s life.

? provide feedback that is warm, positive, encouraging, and intentional.

? attempt to communicate with and foster relationships with each child, regardless of their ability to speak a child’s home language.

? show affection and caring to each child.

? model healthy relationship skills with adults and children.

? regularly examine personal thoughts, feelings, strengths, and areas for growth.

? use reflective (thoughtful) practice to understand personal emotional response in working with infants, toddlers, and their families.

? support and reinforce parent/guardian strengths, emerging parenting competencies, and positive parent-child interactions.

 

 

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Area 1: Social and Emotional Development

 

 

Relationship with Children - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 1.4.IT Infants and toddlers respond to and initiate interactions with other children.

 

 

Benchmarks: The infant or toddler…

1.4.IT.1 initiates interactions with other children through gestures, vocalizations, facial expressions, and/or body movements.

1.4.IT.2 accepts help from familiar adults in interactions with other children.

1.4.IT.3 begins to demonstrate empathy for others and responds to people’s facial expressions, body language, and/or interactions.

1.4.IT.4 develops an awareness of his or her behavior and how it affects others.

1.4.IT.5 imitates other children’s behaviors.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Robin scoots over to Delora and touches her gently on the head.

 

Kathy takes the truck away from Jamar. Jamar shouts, “No!” and grabs the truck back. Kathy screams, “Mine.” A caring adult says, “Kathy, here is another truck you can use. Jamar is still playing with this one.” Kathy and Jamar play with his or her own truck.

 

Zach is startled by a noise and begins to cry. Beth leans over and pats Zach’s hand. They smile at one another. Helena brings a ball over to Javier and says, “Javier play.”

Ali takes a toy from Evangeline and Evangeline cries. Ali gives it back and finds another toy.

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? provide opportunities for children to play with similar materials in the same area, for example, by placing babies on blankets near each other and using self-talk (describing what the adult is doing)and parallel talk (describing what the child is doing or seeing, without expecting a response from the child). This helps a child develop a relationship with the adult.

? assist children in taking turns.

? use active listening to resolve conflicts and to help ensure that each child’s messages are understood by others.

? provide enough materials for several children to play with the same toy/activity.

? recognize and model sharing things with others.

? allow children to play with a toy as long as they desire.

? model relationship skills and caring behaviors.

 

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Area 1: Social and Emotional Development

 

 

Relationship with Children - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 1.4.PS Children respond to and initiate appropriate interactions with other children, and form

positive peer relationships.

 

Benchmarks: The child…

1.4.PS.1 initiates and sustains positive interactions with peers, and organizes play.

1.4.PS.2 wants to please and be like friends.

1.4.PS.3 negotiates with others to resolve disagreements.

1.4.PS.4 develops friendships with other children (peers); starts to demonstrate taking turns and sharing with others.

1.4.PS.5 expresses empathy to other children (peers), and demonstrates caring behaviors.

1.4.PS.5 accepts consequences of his or her actions.

1.4.PS.6 recognizes how behaviors can affect others.

1.5.PS.7 names friends.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Spencer walks up to Kyler carrying a board game and asks Kyler to play with him. The boys agree on who goes first and then take several turns moving their pieces.

 

Dashari repeatedly seeks out Margo to play with her.

 

Judy and Charlie both want to play with the blue truck. They both say, “Mine” and look at each other a few seconds. Judy says, “I’ll take the yellow one, and you take the blue one.”

 

Analese has a physical disability and the adult positions her on the floor to play. Heidi, another child, brings Analese’s pillow to support her back, and says, “Analese, here is your pillow.”

 

Jeffrey uses glue and paper shapes to make a picture. Arlo walks up to the art area and starts to make a picture his own. He says to Jeffrey, “Can I

have the glue next?”  Jeffrey hands him the glue.

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? provide time, space, and sufficient materials for children to interact with others during play experiences.

? create situations in which children can work cooperatively with both boys and girls.

? encourage each child, coaching him or her  as needed, to resolve conflicts, to respect the rights of others, and to reach joint decisions.

? point out and draw attention to different perspectives, including children’s literature and play materials.

? create opportunities that allow English language learners to engage with other children.

? model healthy relationship skills with adults and children.

? acknowledge positive interactions between children.

 

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Physical

Well-Being and Motor Development

 

 

 

Area 2: Physical Well-Being and Motor Development

 

 

Healthy and Safe Living - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 2.1.IT Infants and toddlers participate in healthy and safe living practices.

 

 

Benchmarks:

The infant…

2.1.IT.1 expresses satisfaction or dissatisfaction regarding care and play routines as well as participates in care routines based on appropriate developmental stages and family culture.

2.1.IT.2 establishes healthy eating and sleeping patterns with the assistance of a responsive adult.

2.1.IT.3 ingests breast milk or formula, progressing to solid foods, to self-feeding age-appropriate foods, and drinking from a cup.

 

The toddler…

2.1.IT.4 participates in healthy self-care routines, demonstrating increasing independence, such as washing hands and pouring own milk, with assistance from a caring adult.

2.1.IT.5 shows a willingness to try new foods and engages in food exploration such as basic cooking tasks or dramatic play activity.

2.1.IT.6 participates in safe behaviors regarding the environment, such as around stairs or hot surfaces, or accepts redirection from adults.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Andy snuggles into a caring adult’s arms, gazes up at the adult, and coos.

 

Lunch is ready. Ricky walks to the bathroom, where the caring adult helps him wash his hands.

 

The caring adult puts a plate of food in front of Bieu. She picks up and eats the diced pieces of chicken and bread. She leaves the cooked carrots on her plate until she sees the caring adult eat some carrots. The adult says, “Mmm. I like carrots.” Bieu eats a carrot.

 

Carrie points to the toilet while her diaper is changed. The caring adult says, “Do you want to sit on the potty?” The adult takes Carrie to the toilet and allows her to sit on the toilet.

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

* place each infant on her or his back for sleeping in a safety approved crib in a safe sleep environment.

* hold all infants for bottle feedings to encourage bonding with caregivers and opportunities for infants to communicate feeding cues.

* introduce new foods to children according to their physical, developmental, and cultural needs. It often takes 10-15 times before a child will accept a new food.

* model healthy eating by sitting with children during meal and snack time.

* use safe, healthy caregiving practices with each child during diapering, feeding, toileting, handwashing, and nose-wiping routines.

* gather information about specific health information (allergies, medications) and caregiving routines at home from families.

* share with families the importance of regular well-child visits and oral health/dental checkups.

* work with families to adjust to cultural variations in caregiving routines.

* ensure the environment is safe for each child by removing or limiting access to hazardous substances and situations, such as electrical outlets, hot surfaces, stairs, toxic substances, choking hazards, and recalled products.

* individualize strategies to assist each child to engage in safe and healthy practices, as independently as possible.

* use adaptive equipment to help children with special needs develop self-help skills.

* maintain First Aid and CPR certification.

* ensure children are followed by a health care provider through routine well-child health visits.

 

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Area 2: Physical Well-Being and Motor Development

 

 

Healthy and Safe Living - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 2.1.PS Children show increasing awareness of healthy and safe living practices.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

2.1.PS.1 begins to recognize and select healthy foods.

2.1.PS.2 follows healthy self-care routines such as brushing teeth, washing hands, and using the bathroom.

2.1.PS.3 develops appropriate balance between rest and physical activity as part of a healthy lifestyle.

2.1.PS.4 demonstrates safe behaviors regarding environment (stranger, tornado, fire, traffic, bodies of water), toxic substances, objects, and climbing structures.

2.1.PS.5 communicates safety rules and the reasons for the rules for indoor and outdoor environments.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

During lunch, all food is placed in the middle of the table in serving bowls. The caring adult helps herself to broccoli and passes it around the table.

Abdul puts a spoonful on his plate saying, “They’re little trees.” The adult says, “Tell me why you think they look like trees.” Abdul says,

“They’re green and leafy.” The adult says, “You are right. Broccoli is green and leafy like trees.” She takes a bite and says, “I like broccoli.” Abdul takes a bite and says, “Me, too.” The adult comments, “Broccoli helps our bodies grow.” Abdul says, “I’m going to grow as big as my dad.”

 

Use daily self-care activities such as handwashing, zipping jackets, and brushing teeth to support the development of children’s fine motor skills.

The child follows simple and clear verbal or picture card instructions. The child explores materials and complete tasks successfully as a result of enough time.

 

After an active morning and a healthy lunch, Grace rubs her eyes - a sign her body needs rest. A caring adult says, “Grace, it looks like you are ready to rest. You worked hard this morning.” The adult sets out cots around the classroom, dims the lights, and plays soft music. Grace retrieves her blanket from her cubby, finds her assigned cot, and falls asleep.

 

The fire alarm alerts staff and children of a scheduled monthly drill. Li stops her activity and looks to an adult for guidance. She follows the group to the designated safe area outdoors. Li says to her friend, “When we hear the fire alarm, we need to get out so we don’t get hurt.”

 

 

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

* model mealtime behavior, sitting with children to guide interactions, model appropriate behaviors, and engage children in conversations.

* encourage each child to learn and develop self-help skills during mealtimes and food experiences, such as washing hands and cleaning up spills.

* plan and implement emergency and safety procedures, such as fire, disaster, tornado drills, and transportation.

* check fire alarms frequently to ensure they work properly.

* encourage safety through picking up toys and wiping up spills.

* provide children with the correct medication at the correct time, documenting the date, time, and dose.

* offer nutritious food several times, as it may take 10-15 exposures before new foods are accepted.

* include children in food preparation experiences, including basic cooking tasks, setting the table, or dramatic play.

* ensure children are followed by a health care provider through routine well-child health visits.

* provide periods of rest, as needed throughout the day, using dim lights and relaxing music to create a calm environment.

* use adaptive equipment to help children with special needs develop self-help skills.

* provide helmets for children when using riding toys.

* share the importance of regular well-child visits and dental checkups with families.

 

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Area 2: Physical Well-Being and Motor Development

 

 

Large Motor Skills - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 2.2.IT Infants and toddlers develop large motor skills.

 

 

Benchmarks:

The infant…

2.2.IT.1 shows increasing balance, strength, and coordination in activities such as gaining control of the head and body by turning head from side to side, lifting the head off the floor, sitting, and standing.

2.2.IT.2 shows increasing control in large motor skills such as reaching, rolling over, crawling, standing, and walking.

 

The toddler…

2.2.IT.3 shows increasing control in motor skills such as rolling, throwing, and kicking a ball, and jumping.

2.2.IT.4 shows increasing balance in activities such as running, climbing stairs, marching, and moving a riding toy using his or her feet.

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Sarah is on her tummy on the floor. She raises her head to look at a caring adult. The adult lies on the floor in front of Sarah. As the adult calls

Sarah’s name, Sarah lifts her head and makes eye contact with the adult.

 

Lani is sitting on the floor. She pulls herself up to stand at the table. She lets go with one hand, wobbles, and then grabs the table again. Jorge climbs on a riding toy without pedals and moves it across the room using his feet.

A caring adult sits Joseph on the floor with a few toys within and out of reach to encourage Joseph to practice reaching and moving toward the toys.

 

During outside play, a caring adult plays a chasing game with Henry. The adult says, “I’m going to get you.” Henry toddles off, screaming in delight.

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

* provide a variety of daily developmentally appropriate indoor and outdoor experiences and materials to stimulate each child’s large muscle

activities.

* provide help, as needed, for each child to practice large motor skills by using strategies and materials such as play gyms for reaching, surfaces to crawl over, stable surfaces to pull up, push toys, walk-along toys, and riding toys.

* encourage movement by each child by varying the height of toys offered.

?*? reposition non-mobile infants often throughout the day to experience various areas of the classroom and bring objects and activities to them.

* place infants in safe settings at least twice each day to facilitate physical activity and to not restrict movement for more than 15 minutes.

* play with children to model and encourage the development of large muscles with activities that include jumping, hopping, skipping, crawling, climbing, and dancing.

* provide adaptive large motor equipment to allow each child with varying abilities to practice large motor skills.

* provide complex natural environments to explore, such as fruit, vegetable, or butterfly gardens.

* ensure tummy time for infants occurs multiple times each day for supervised play while awake and alert, changing position as the infant becomes distressed.

* communicate identified motor development concerns with families or supervisors, and encourage follow-up with resources.

 

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Area 2: Physical Well-Being and Motor Development

 

 

Large Motor Skills - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 2.2.PS Children develop large motor skills.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

2.2.PS.1 demonstrates control and balance in locomotor skills, such as walking, running, jumping, hopping, marching, galloping, and climbing stairs.

2.2.PS.2 demonstrates the ability to coordinate movements with balls, such as throwing, kicking, striking, catching, and bouncing.

2.2.PS.3 expresses enjoyment in participating in physical experiences and creative movement.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

The children sit in a large circle. A caring adult plays music and asks, “How does this music make you want to move?” The adult starts moving children clockwise around the circle. Briana gallops while Tsama hops. The adult comments, “Look how Briana is using her feet—she’s galloping.” A few children start galloping. The adult then says, “Tsama has a good idea. He’s hopping on one foot.” A few more children hop. The adult maintains the experience based on the children’s interests, talking about the movements the children demonstrate.

 

Nicholas, a child with less developed skills to handle objects, successfully participates and experiments in activities using materials of various sizes, shapes, textures, and weight.

 

Adrianna mimics movements of an animal after seeing a picture of an animal. Other children follow her actions and guess the animal.

 

Marjorie stands on one foot and ‘freezes’ for three seconds. She stands on the other foot and can also ‘freeze.’ She tries to stand on one foot with eyes closed, but is unable. She asks if she can try again.

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

* provide space, enough time, and materials for each child to explore and to practice large motor activities, such as balancing, running, jumping, climbing, throwing, catching, kicking, and bouncing.

* provide outdoor environments that allow children to explore and to investigate while using large muscle groups.

* play games with each child that involve catching, kicking, and bouncing balls, coaching each child and modifying the games to both challenge each child and to allow him or her  to succeed.

* provide adaptive large motor equipment that allows each child with physical abilities to practice large motor skills.

* use routine times and transitions to facilitate physical activity, such as walking like a crab or jumping like a rabbit.

* provide adult-led structured and child-led unstructured opportunities for physical activities throughout the day.

* use additional active playtime to encourage or reward - rather than withhold active playtime as a punishment.

* communicate identified motor development concerns with families and supervisors, and encourage follow-up with resources.

* use modifications for children with varying abilities or those with less developed manipulative skills, such as lower targets, easy-to-see, bright objects to strike, or reducing the distance between the child and target.

* provide consistent and specific terminology, such as, “Look at the target before you throw.”

 

 

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Area 2: Physical Well-Being and Motor Development

 

 

Small Motor Development - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 2.3.IT Infants and toddlers develop small motor skills.

 

 

Benchmarks:

The infant…

2.3.IT.1 uses hand-eye coordination to perform self-help and small motor tasks, such as eating food, picking up objects, placing objects on a surface, transferring objects from hand to hand, and fitting objects into a hole in a box.

 

The toddler…

2.3.IT.2 uses hand-eye coordination to perform self-help and small motor tasks such as eating with a fork or spoon, completing simple puzzles, stacking blocks, dressing with assistance, scribbling with crayons or markers, participating in finger plays, and using musical instruments.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

A caring adult holds out a ball. Sawyer reaches for the ball.

 

Jamar sits at the table with a bowl of round cereal pieces. He picks up each piece by palming it, and then licks his hand clean.

 

Sarah sits on the floor holding a rattle in her hand. She uses her other hand to grab the rattle and lets go with her hand. She repeats the transfer between her hands again and again.

 

During bottle feeding, a caring adult holds Tamara and allows her to hold the bottle as she chooses.

 

Delano is playing with blocks. He puts one block on top of another one. The nearby, caring adult says, “Delano, you stacked the blocks. Can you put another block on top?” Delano places another block on top. The adult says, “You stacked three blocks – 1, 2, 3. Let’s see how high you can g

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

* provide a variety of experiences, and different objects for each child to manipulate, to explore and practice, and to stimulate the child’s small

motor skills, such as grasping, dropping, pulling, pushing, touching, and mouthing.

* provide help, as needed, for each child to succeed in small muscle experiences.

* assist children when tasks become frustrating, rather than doing the task for them.

* provide time, equipment, and encouragement for each child to develop self-help skills, such as undressing, feeding, and hand-washing.

* use strategies that allow each child to increase self-help and small motor skills.

* supervise and play with children to model and to encourage small motor skills.

* clear the environment of choking hazards.

* communicate identified motor development concerns with families and supervisors, and encourages follow-up with resources.

 

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Area 2: Physical Well-Being and Motor Development

 

 

Small Motor Development - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 2.3.PS Children develop small motor skills.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

2.3.PS.1 uses hand-eye coordination to perform self-help and small motor tasks with a variety of manipulative materials, such as beads, pegs, shoelaces, puzzle pieces, and musical instruments.

2.3.PS.2 demonstrates increased skills using scissors and writing tools for various learning experiences.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Louis tears and folds paper, strings beads, cuts yarn, and rolls play dough. He successfully uses plastic tweezers, medicine droppers, and tongs to explore and look at various objects.

 

Jamar has cerebral palsy. The bowl slides away when he uses a spoon to eat applesauce. A caring adult puts a non-slip pad under the bowl and a rubber tube on his spoon. Jamar feeds himself.

 

Nieseem tries to zip his jacket, but he can’t get the two parts together. “I need help!” he shouts. A caring adult asks, “What’s wrong, Nieseem?” Nieseem responds, “I can’t get the zipper to work.” The adult says, “It is hard. Do you want me to start it for you?” Nieseem says, “Yes.” The adult puts the ends of the zipper together and starts the pull. “Here - you can finish it.” Nieseem pulls up the zipper and says, “Let’s go outside!”

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

* provide a variety of small motor tools and materials such as beads, pegboards, scissors, crayons, paintbrushes, and hammers that are available and accessible for use during free-choice activities.

* coach each child to improve independence in self-help skills such as dressing, toileting, and buttoning.

* teach each child to use utensils during meals, snacks, and supervised cooking experiences.

* provide adaptive equipment that allows children with varying abilities to increase fine motor skills such as adding tabs to books for turning pages, placing tape on crayons and markers to make them easier to grip.

* supervise the use of small materials.

* provide a variety of opportunities for children to play and to explore their environment.

* communicate identified motor development concerns with families and supervisors, and encourages follow-up with resources.

* Provide activities to strengthen hand grasp, finger movements, and support eye-hand coordination.

* vary your language to accommodate different developmental levels

* provide adaptive equipment, as needed.

 

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Approaches

to

Learning

 

 

 

Area 3: Approaches to Learning

 

 

Curiosity and Initiative - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 3.1.IT Infants and toddlers express curiosity and initiative in exploring the environment and learning new skills.

 

Benchmarks: The infant or toddler…

3.1.IT.1 shows interest in people including other infants, objects, and events.

3.1.IT.2 uses his or her senses to choose, explore, and manipulate a variety of objects or toys in a variety of ways.

3.1.IT.3 actively plays with or near adults, other children, and materials.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

A caring adult places her hands in front of her face. Shannon watches the adult move her hands, saying “Peek-a-boo.” Shannon laughs. The adult

repeats the action and Shannon laughs again.

 

Paola, who is 9 months old, is exploring 8-month-old Dionte. Paola touches Dionte and watches him lying on the floor. An adult is nearby to guide

the interaction.  Dionte smiles and touches Paola’s hair.

 

Mehar sits on a log and watches as a small bird eats from a nearby birdfeeder. Mehar watches as it flies away and lands in tree. She runs to the tree and watches it, pointing, and shouting, “Pakshi, pakshi” (bird, bird).

 

Selena looks at the patterned carpet on the floor. She stands on a shape and begins to jump from shape to shape, saying, “Hop, hop, hop,” each time she jumps.

 

Matthew picks up an oatmeal container and pushes it. It falls over, rolls away, and he laughs.

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? provide a variety of familiar and new materials that have a variety of uses to encourage each child’s choices, play, and exploration.

? watch children to discover their individual interests and needs, ask what is needed, and adapt experiences and routines to meet each child’s

needs and interests.

? respect the process of each child’s exploration without expecting finished “products.”

? support each child’s exploration by smiling, nodding, and talking.

? clean and sanitize mouthed objects after each child.

? prepare a safe environment and protect each child’s exploration through frequent equipment, toy, and material checks for hazards, including small parts, broken parts, and entanglement or strangulation hazards.

? directly supervise infants and toddlers by sight and hearing at all times, even when the children are going to sleep, sleeping, are beginning to wake up, or are indoors or outdoors.

 

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Area 3: Approaches to Learning

 

 

Curiosity and Initiative - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 3.1.PS Children express curiosity, interest, and initiative in exploring the environment, engaging in experiences, and learning new skills.

 

Benchmarks: The child…

3.1.PS.1 chooses, deliberately, to explore a variety of materials and experiences, seeking out new challenges.

3.1.PS.2 participates in experiences with eagerness, flexibility, imagination, independence, and inventiveness.

3.1.PS.3 asks questions about a variety of topics.

3.1.PS.4 repeats skills and experiences to build competence and support the exploration of new ideas.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Chris stands in front of some blocks and says, “I’m going to build a fire station like the one we visited.” “Good plan, Chris. We need fire stations so firefighters can put out fires,” responds a caring adult. Chris builds four walls and puts the fire engines inside. He attempts to put blocks on top of the building, but they fall into the building. Chris says, “The roof keeps falling down.” The caring adult says, “Why do you think that's happening?” “The pieces are too small. I could put those big pieces of cardboard for the roof,” Chris says. He puts a piece of cardboard on top, stands back, and smiles. The adult smiles and says, “You figured it out and you built a fire station to hold the fire trucks.”

 

While looking at the fish tank, Marika says, “Every day the water gets lower and lower in the fish tank.” A caring adult says, “You’re right, it does.

Why do you think that happens, Marika?” Marika responds, “I think the fish are thirsty, and every day they drink more and more of the water.”

 

Liam, while approaching a caring adult, holds a clipboard with paper and a pencil. Liam says, “Hi, I’m taking a survey. Do you like blue or green better?” The adult responds, “I prefer blue. Why are you doing this survey?” Liam says, “I wanted to know what color everyone likes because I’m going to draw a picture.” The adult replies, “Let me know what you find out.” Liam smiles and says, “I will!”

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? provide a safe environment with a variety of experiences and materials for child-initiated exploration and play.

? encourage each child to express his or her own ideas and to exercise his or her imagination.

? share each child’s excitement in discoveries and exploration of the environment.

? encourage each child to make choices and to plan interactions with people and materials.

? provide opportunities and enough time to explore a variety of developmentally appropriate experiences and materials, including those in their larger community environments.

? model curiosity and openness about new ideas.

? ask children open-ended questions about what they are doing, such as “What do you think will happen next?”

? directly supervise children by sight and hearing at all times, even when the children are going to sleep, sleeping, are beginning to wake up, or are indoors or outdoors.

 

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Area 3: Approaches to Learning

 

 

Engagement and Persistence - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 3.2.IT Infants and toddlers purposefully choose, engage, and persist in play, experiences, and routines.

 

 

Benchmarks: The infant or toddler…

3.2.IT.1 holds attention of familiar adult; for example, through eye contact or vocalizations.

3.2.IT.2 repeats familiar and newly learned experiences.

3.2.IT.3 maintains focus, if interested, on people or objects, play experiences, or novel events.

3.2.IT.4 continues to try to succeed using challenging materials or during experiences.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Madeline smiles at her care provider during her diaper change. Madeline then says, “Ahgoo.” The caring provider smiles and repeats, “Ahgoo.”

Madeline continues to make eye contact with the provider and they exchange several “Ahgoos.”

 

Jose puts his head through the neck hole and pulls his shirt over his head. He puts one arm in each sleeve and says, “I did it!”

 

Raeann crawls over to the pop-up toy and pushes the buttons several times with little success. She looks to a nearby adult. The adult helps Raeann push two or three of the buttons. The adult moves away and Raeann continues to push buttons, with more success in opening the pop-ups.

 

Leilani lets go of the adult’s hand, takes a wobbly step, and falls down. She pushes up and takes two steps before falling down again.

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? provide protected spaces and adequate time for each child to choose developmentally appropriate toys and to play without being interrupted.

? introduce toys multiple times to determine each child’s interest.

? allow each child to take the lead during play.

? provide additional support and assistance for each child to engage and to persist with toys.

? support children’s choices by paying close attention to their actions and gestures, interpreting their preferences, and building on them.

? play and interact often with each child.

? talk about and model healthy and safe behaviors throughout the day.

? use words of encouragement to support children in their experiences and routines.

 

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Area 3: Approaches to Learning

 

 

Engagement and Persistence - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 3.2.PS Children purposefully choose and persist in experiences and play.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

3.2.PS.1 maintains concentration on a task, despite distractions and interruptions.

3.2.PS.2 stays engaged and completes a variety of both adult-directed and self-initiated tasks, projects, and experiences of increasing degrees of difficulty.

3.2.PS.3 sets goals and follows a plan in order to complete a task.

3.2.PS.4 chooses to participate in play and learning experiences.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Dee plays with blocks. She carefully lays out a grid of long blocks, putting a series of blocks that are one, two, or three blocks high in the spaces of the grid. She then takes a car and drives it on the grid. Dee says, “Here’s my school. See the parents bringing all the kids to school?” The adult says, “You worked a long time to make such a big town with so many streets, houses, and a school, too!” Dee points to a large building and says, “And here’s the grocery store. Everyone goes there to get food for supper.” The adult responds, “That is an important store in the town.”

 

Mai chooses a puzzle. After a few minutes, she pushes away the partially completed puzzle. A caring adult says, “Mai, you look like you are frustrated. Let’s turn over all the pieces so you can see each picture.” Mai turns the pieces over and looks at the pieces. The adult points to a rounded shape in the border and says, “Look at this. Can you find a piece with this shape?” Mai fits the shape into the space and says, “I did it! It’s a wheel. And here’s another wheel.” She continues to assemble the puzzle. “I did it!” Mai exclaims. “You got all the pieces into the puzzle,” responds the adult. Mai smiles and says, “Let’s do another one.”

 

Geovanni is getting restless as the caring adult reads a story about a curious monkey. To re-engage him, the adult says, “Geovanni, what do you think the monkey will do with the newspapers?” Geovanni replies, “He’ll read them.” The adult says, “Let’s see if your prediction is right.” The adult turns the page, showing the children and continues to read.

 

 

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Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark (continued):

Alexander takes a small piece of playdough, shapes the dough into a ball, and flattens it by pushing it on top of the table. He tries to pull the flattened dough up but it pulls apart. He repeats the actions, but this time lifts the edges of the flattened piece first. He places it on a tray. He makes five more flattened pieces, putting each one on the tray until it is full. He tells a nearby adult, “Look I made cookies.” The adult says, “I watched you work very hard to make those cookies. What ingredients did you put in your cookies?”

 

 

Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? provide a safe environment with a variety of developmentally appropriate experiences and materials for child-initiated exploration and play.

? provide defined learning spaces to decrease distraction and to provide some protection to encourage sustained involvement with other children and materials.

? provide learning experiences through routines and play, allowing sufficient time for children to continue in self-selected experiences.

? guide each child’s learning and development by responding to questions, ideas, and requests for help, by being present with and fully

attending to children, and by individualizing responses to children.

? provide assistance, as needed, to support the involvement by each child.

? provide adult-directed experiences that engage and support the learning in a developmentally appropriate and intentional manner.

? ask open-ended questions to support children’s learning, such as, “What do you think will happen next?”

? provide a variety of planned play experiences, indoors and outdoors, including experiences that each child enjoys.

 

 

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Area 3: Approaches to Learning

 

 

Reasoning and Problem Solving - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 3.3.IT Infants and toddlers purposefully demonstrate strategies for reasoning and problem solving.

 

 

Benchmarks: The infant or toddler…

3.3.IT.1 uses an object, action, or adult to accomplish tasks, such as pulling a blanket to reach a toy or pushing a button to hear a sound.

3.3.IT.2 experiments to find a solution to a problem.

3.3.IT.3 imitates an adult action to solve a problem.

3.3.IT.4 recognizes difficulties and adjusts actions, as needed.

3.3.IT.5 seeks and accepts help when encountering a problem beyond his or her ability to solve independently.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Akeelah is uncomfortable in her position on the floor. She squirms to change positions but is still uncomfortable. She then looks toward the adult near her and begins to cry. The adult helps reposition Akeelah and watches her face to see if she seems content.

 

Melissa tries to walk up the ramp. She loses her balance and sits down. She crawls up the ramp.

 

Antoine lies on a blanket on the floor. He reaches for a toy on the edge of the blanket. When he cannot reach it, he grasps the blanket and pulls it toward him until he can reach the toy.

 

Robin takes her snack plate to the trash to scrape off the crumbs. She shakes the plate but cannot make the crumbs fall off. The adult cleans other plates with a scraper. Robin reaches for the scraper and the adult lets her use it to scrape her plate.

 

Adaya has a small pile of stacking blocks with her on the floor. She connected several to build a tower. As she adds another block, she presses and the tower crumbles. She builds the tower again, with the same result. The third time she builds the tower, she holds the last block out to the adult.

 

Ben goes to the drawer where the sippy cup lids are stored and brings a lid to a caring adult. The adult says, “Ben, are you thirsty? Would you like a

drink? Let’s get you some water.” Ben follows the adult to the sink.

 

 

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? provide developmentally appropriate, open-ended toys and materials for children to use in different ways to encourage problem solving and exploration.

? acknowledge new learning by each child.

? wait for the child to signal for help.

? guide the learning process, rather than provide solutions. Talk through problems and how to find a solution.

? ask questions that prompt a child to think about cause and effect.

? stay near children to offer support and assistance as needed.

 

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Area 3: Approaches to Learning

 

 

Reasoning and Problem Solving - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 3.3.PS Children demonstrate strategies for reasoning and problem solving.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

3.3.PS.1 shows interest in and finds a variety of solutions to questions, tasks, or problems.

3.3.PS.2 recognizes and solves problems through active exploration, including trial and error, and through interactions and discussions with peers and adults.

3.3.PS.3 shares ideas or makes suggestions of how to solve a problem presented by another person.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

José and Michael run their trucks up the slide while other children are going down the slide. A caring adult says, “It’s not safe to have trucks and children on the slide at the same time.” José explains, “But the trucks go faster when they go down the slide.” The adult replies, “Yes, the trucks do go much faster when they go downhill. What else can we set up to make the trucks go faster?” José suggests, “We can make a slide

with blocks.” The adult says, “Let’s see if that works.” José and Michael take the trucks over to the blocks, where they stack four blocks, and tilt a board against the blocks. They run the trucks down the board. “See, they go really fast,” says Michael. The adult replies, “Yes, you built a ramp where trucks can go very fast and it is away from the children who want to use the slide.”

 

During story time, Damon says, “I can’t see.” A caring adult says, “What can you do so you can see better?” Damon looks around, then moves to a

spot where he can see the book.

 

Gayle is at the water table, trying to fill a bottle by using a funnel to carry the water to the bottle. Most of the water runs out of the funnel before reaching the bottle. An adult says, “I see the water is running out of the hole at the bottom of the funnel. Is there anything else you can use to fill the bottle?” Gayle looks around, goes to the dramatic play center, and returns with a toy coffee pot.

 

William has a hard time zipping up his coat and gets frustrated. He starts to cry. A caring adult says, “William, why are you so sad?” He replies, “I can’t get my coat zipped.”  The adult says, “Well, what can you do to get your coat zipped up?” William says, “I can ask you for help. Will you zip my coat?” The adult says, “Of course, I will help you. Let’s get this zipper started and then see if you can zip it the rest of the way.”

 

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? provide opportunities for each child to try new ways to use materials.

? create safe environments that offer an appropriate amount of stimulation and choice for each child to explore and play.

? provide different types of developmentally appropriate equipment and materials to promote creativity, self-expression, number, and emerging literacy skills.

? allow each child time to process experiences and information.

? talk through problems with children to model problem-solving with others and with the environment.

? hold group meetings to discuss issues that may occur and have children brainstorm solutions to the issues before it occurs.

 

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Area 3: Approaches to Learning

 

 

Play and Senses - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 3.4.IT Infants and toddlers engage in play to learn.

 

 

Benchmarks: The infant or toddler…

3.4.IT.1 uses sights, smells, sounds, textures, and tastes to explore and experience routines and materials within the environment.

3.4.IT.2 chooses and participates in a variety of play experiences.

3.4.IT.3 imitates behaviors of others in play.

3.4.IT.4 repeats experiences with materials, adults, and peers to build knowledge and understanding of the world around them.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Kayla turns the pages of the touch-and-feel book. She touches the fur on the lamb and says, “Baaa.”

 

Cyndi pulls out the nesting cubes. She carefully takes each cube apart and makes a circle of them around her.

 

While reading a book to Amari in her home language, the adult uses a puppet to act out certain parts of the story. Amari crawls over to the puppet bin, and pulls one out. He fidgets for a moment to find the opening and slides it over his hand. Amari wiggles his hand inside, looks to the

adult, and smiles.

 

An adult does the actions to the ‘Itsy Bitsy Spider’ song. Joseph watches, and then imitates the actions with the adult as the adult sings the song a

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? prepare the physical environment to encourage children’s play by providing materials that are sufficient for the ages and the number of children.

? provide materials accessible to all children, facilitate development in all areas, and encourage use of the five senses.

? provide daily opportunities for play, including indoor and outdoor play, active and quiet play, and large and small motor play for each child.

? interact often with children during play; play with each child, and talk about the experience.

? adapt materials as needed so that each child can explore the environment through play.

? engage in turn-taking games such as making faces, vocalizing, and imitating actions with each child.

? match activities to the interests and abilities of each infant or toddler, occasionally showing the next steps.

? safeguard the health and safety of each child by introducing non-toxic, developmentally appropriate materials and experiences.

 

 

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Area 3: Approaches to Learning

 

 

Play and Senses - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 3.4.PS Children engage in play to learn.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

3.4.PS.1 engages in a variety of indoor and outdoor play experiences.

3.4.PS.2 uses sights, smells, sounds, textures, and tastes to discriminate between and to explore experiences, materials, and the environment.

3.4.PS.3 engages in self-initiated, unstructured play.

3.4.PS.4 plans and executes play experiences alone and with others.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Three children make lunch at the play kitchen. Graham puts a hamburger on his hamburger bun, and says to the adult, “I don’t like plain hamburgers!” The adult replies, “What other things do you want to add to make it taste the way you like it?” Graham says, “I will to put cheese, lettuce, and tomatoes on it.” As he puts on the ingredients, he laughs, and says, “No pickles on my hamburger, but I noticed Samantha used pickles, but not cheese.  She must not like cheese. I wonder if Ambros likes cheese?”

 

Cyndi climbs on a play structure and announces, “I’m a pirate and I’m climbing to the top of the mast.” A caring adult says, “You are high in the air, Cyndi.” Cyndi replies, “I’m at the top of the mast now. I can see China!” The adult asks, “What do you see?” Cyndi says, “I can see the tops of the trees, and the road, and many cars.” The adult says, “You’re so high in the air that you can see farther than I can!” Cyndi responds, “I’m on top of the world!”

 

Isabella and Eduardo play in the sandbox. Isabella says, “Let’s pretend we’re looking for dinosaur bones.” Eduardo says, “Yeah!” He jumps out of the sandbox and comes back with twigs and acorns. He says, “Let’s bury these. They will be the bones we find!”

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? use indoor and outdoor environments as a vital part of each child’s active and quiet learning.

? encourage each child to use all senses to explore and play with materials.

? provide easily accessible materials for each child in both indoor and outdoor environments.

? protect the health and safety of each child by using non-toxic, developmentally appropriate materials to encourage use of the senses.

? provide extended periods of time for children to self-select materials for play and exploration.

? interact with each child throughout each day and have conversations about what the child does and experiences.

? adapt materials, as needed, so every child can explore the environment through play.

 

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Social

Studies

 

 

 

Area 4: Social Studies

 

 

Awareness of Family and Community - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

 

Standard 4.1.IT Infants and toddlers demonstrate a sense of belonging within their family, program, and other social settings or groups.

 

Benchmarks: The infant or toddler…

4.1.IT.1 expresses enjoyment at being in a familiar setting or group.

4.1.IT.2 recognizes familiar adults and uses them to determine safety during exploration.

4.1.IT.3 explores and plays freely within familiar settings.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant Toddler Benchmark:

Bobby plays outside with blocks. Mark walks over and sits beside Bobby. Bobby and Mark both play with a set of blocks.

 

Chavah begins to crawl toward an open door in the living room. She stops, turns her head back, and looks at her mother’s questioning face. She

turns around and crawls toward her mother.

 

Isabella plays on the floor and starts to cry. The nearby adult stops what he is doing and goes to Isabella saying, “Isabella, it sounds like you are sad. Are you ready for us to spend some time together? Let’s sit and read a book.” Isabella responds with a smile and coos as they sit to read together.

 

As Juan enters his classroom, he runs to the caring adult and hugs her. Juan turns to his father and waves goodbye.

 

Heather plays in an area and sees an unfamiliar face. She looks to her familiar adult primary caregiver to make sure the ‘unfamiliar face’ is safe.

 

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? arrange the room, adjust space, and provide materials so two or more children, including those with diverse abilities, can play beside each other.

? provide a labeled space where each child’s possessions are kept.

? provide photographs of each child with his or her family prominently displayed at the child’s eye level.

? talk with children in positive ways about familiar people and family members.

? create environments that welcome each family, program staff, and members of the community.

? encourage family members to participate in program experiences and daily routines.

? incorporate familiar items, language, and routines from each child’s culture into program settings.

? play and interact with children often every day.

 

 

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Area 4: Social Studies

 

 

Awareness of Family and Community - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 4.1.PS Children demonstrate an increasing awareness of belonging to a family and community.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

4.1.PS.1 demonstrates understanding communities are composed of groups of people who live, play, or work together.

4.1.PS.2 demonstrates ability to identify communities to which they belong.

4.1.PS.3 recognizes their family is an important group to which they belong.

4.1.PS.4 demonstrates responsibility as a member of a family or community.

4.1.PS.5 shows confidence in expressing individual opinions and thoughts while respecting the thoughts and opinions of others.

4.1.PS.6 participates in creating and following rules and routines.

4.1.PS.7 demonstrates an initial awareness of the concepts of fairness, individual rights, and welfare of family and community members.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

A home visitor is at Sasha’s house. Sasha tells her, “Daddy is not at home because he is in the army a long way away.”

 

Pedro walks over to the wall where pictures of children’s families are displayed. He points to a picture and says, “Here are my two mommies.”

 

Adam, the lead teacher, helps his preschool group learn to discuss and establish rules for the classroom community. Adam says, “What rules do we need to follow to make our group safe and healthy?” Lacresha says, “We wash our hands every time we eat!” “And when we come in from outside!” adds Charles. Adam writes each contribution on the white board.

 

Paula draws several shapes on a piece of paper. A caring adult says, “Tell me about your picture.” Paula smiles and says, “This is me and my mom and my grandma. We are a family. This is a picture of us having dinner together. I love them and they love me.” The adult responds, “You love your family, Paula. I am part of a family too. In my family, I’m the mom.”

 

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Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark (continued):

 

After returning to the classroom from outside, Natalie says, “I never get a turn on a trike.” Kareem says, “We were pretending to be on RAGBRAI.

It’s a really, really long bike race.” Natalie says, “It’s not fair that you get the trikes so long.” An adult asks, “What would be a fair rule, Natalie?” Natalie suggests, “Everyone gets five minutes on a trike. We can use the timer like we do for the computers.” Kareem says, “But that’s not fair. We can’t do RAGBRAI in five minutes! It’s a long race.” The adult says, “Some children disagree with a five-minute limit. Any other solutions?” Marshall suggests, “We can take turns and have a sign-up sheet like we do for cooking. You can ride as long as you want. But when someone signs up, you have to get off in five minutes.” The adult responds, “We have two ideas. Everyone uses a timer and gets off in five minutes. Or you use the trike as long as you want, until someone signs up on the list. Then you have to get off in five minutes. How can we decide between the two ideas?” Emily replies, “We can vote.” The adult puts two columns on a board, explains the choices, and asks each

child to choose. The adult concludes, “Marshall’s idea got more votes. Let’s try Marshall’s idea for a few days and then we’ll talk about how it’s working.”

 

 

Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? provide each child with opportunities to explore the community through field trips or by inviting guests to share experiences and information.

? use project-based learning experiences to learn about families and community members.

? ensure that all environments and experiences are designed so all children, including those with diverse abilities, are included.

? conduct group meetings so each child can participate in discussions of justice, fairness, the welfare of the community and its members, and individual rights in the context of daily experiences.

? initiate conversations, as situations arise, to discuss individual children’s feelings and the feelings of others, how actions and words affect feelings, and to promote group interpersonal relationships.

? initiate conversations about differences and similarities.

? provide children with play experiences and materials to explore social roles in the family and workplace, following social rules, norms, and routines.

? invite families to share stories and songs from their culture.

? create an environment to welcome each family and encourages them to participate in program activities and daily routines.

 

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Area 4: Social Studies

 

 

Awareness of Culture - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 4.2.IT Infants and toddlers demonstrate a strong sense of self within their culture.

 

 

Benchmarks: The infant or toddler…

4.2.IT.1 expresses enjoyment at being in a familiar setting or group.

4.2.IT.2 chooses and participates in familiar experiences, including songs and stories from his or her home culture.

4.2.IT.3 explores materials from various cultures.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

An adult sings with the children. José, whose family speaks primarily Spanish at home, sings along. Brittany uses sign language. The adult alternates singing verses in English and Spanish while encouraging the children to watch Brittany. The adult talks about different ways to say the same words.

 

Chi’s father, who grew up in Vietnam, visits the classroom during snack. He shows the toddlers how he uses chopsticks to eat food and lets them explore using child-sized chopsticks with their food. Chi beams.

 

Katie explores the features of a doll, including skin color, eye color, hair, and clothing.

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? provide opportunities for each child to join in experiences such as finger plays or singing songs from the child’s home language or culture.

? use words and materials to refer to families and family members that acknowledge how young children are raised in many different kinds of families.

? include staff or volunteers from each child’s culture, race, or ethnicity.

? provide care routines that are similar to each child’s family culture.

? learn words from each child’s home language.

? speak to each child in his or her home language.

? talk positively about family members.

? use diverse materials during dramatic play, including books, posters, and other items.

? sing a song at naptime familiar to the child.

? read a book provided by the family, including books from other cultures.

 

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Area 4: Social Studies

 

 

Awareness of Culture - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 4.2.PS Children demonstrate an increasing awareness of culture and diversity.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

4.2.PS.1 demonstrates an awareness of diversity such as family characteristics, adult roles within a family, and skin and hair color.

4.2.PS.2 demonstrates acceptance of persons from different cultures and ethnic groups.

4.2.PS.3 demonstrates a sense of belonging, feeling pride in his or her own culture while showing respect for others.

4.2.PS.4 uses respectful and descriptive language for human similarities and differences, demonstrating curiosity, comfort, ease and empathy with similarities and differences.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Jane visited Tony’s home, where she watched Tony use chopsticks to eat chicken nuggets and carrots. Tony’s mom gave Jane a fork and a set of chopsticks. Jane used her fingers to eat the chicken nuggets. Tony said to Jane, “At my home, I use chopsticks for food. I don’t use my fingers. But at school, I use a fork or my fingers.” Tony showed Jane how to use chopsticks. Later, she asked Tony’s mom if she could take the chopsticks home.  Jane took her chopsticks to show everyone that she can use chopsticks.

 

Sarine announces to her friends, Melissa and Tina, she will to have a birthday party. All three girls speak English but Tina is bilingual, and speaks Spanish and English.  A caring adult is nearby and comments in Spanish about the girls’ plans. Tina explains to her friends what the adult said. “You be the birthday boy,” Sarine says to the adult. He sits down at the table in the play kitchen and the girls adorn him with scarves and jewelry. The adult says, “Tina and I can teach you how to sing Happy Birthday in Spanish.” Tina and the adult sing the song all the way through. Then they sing each phrase of the song and encourage Melissa and Sarine to repeat each phrase with them.

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? provide each child with a variety of opportunities and materials to build his or her understanding of diversity in culture, family structure, ability, language, age, and gender in ways that do not stereotype and use project-based strategies.

? initiate conversations about differences and similarities.

? provide children with opportunities and materials, especially books, that reflect a variety of races, cultures, types of families, and gender roles.

? include staff or volunteers from each child’s culture, race, or ethnicity.

? invite families to share stories and songs from their culture.

? learn words, phrases, and sentences from each child’s home language and use this language in interactions and play experiences.

? provide materials such as photographs, books, posters, games, clothes, foods, and dolls, as well as experiences that reflect each child’s

family, community, or culture.

 

? create an environment that welcomes each family and encourages them to participate in program activities and daily routines.

 

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Area 4: Social Studies

 

 

Exploration of the Environment - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 4.3.IT Infants and toddlers explore new environments with interest and recognize familiar places.

 

 

Benchmarks: The infant or toddler…

4.3.IT.1 demonstrates interest and curiosity within familiar and unfamiliar settings.

4.3.IT.2 explores and plays with new, as well as familiar objects, in the environment using all five senses.

4.3.IT.3 chooses and participates in unfamiliar experiences.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Ari, a newborn, moves his eyes in the direction of his father’s voice when his father enters the room. Sabira toddles down a clinic hallway as her mother waits for her well-baby checkup.

Seth picks up a new board book and chews on the corner.

 

A caring adult gives Demario a bowl and wooden spoon. Demario bangs the bowl with the spoon.

 

Kai notices new play mats and a ramp in the corner of the room. He walks to the mats, pushes them together, and climbs up the ramp. Kai feels the smoothness of the mat with his hands, sits on his bottom, and slides down the ramp.

 

A caring adult sets Payton, a young infant, on the floor. Payton rolls slightly from side to side and sees a small stuffed toy. She reaches for the toy, grasps it, holds it over her head, and turns it in her hands while she looks at it.

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? provide a variety of developmentally appropriate experiences and materials to explore and for play.

? name objects in the environment.

? talk through routines to help children feel safe, as well as build their understanding of what is happening or will happen.

? provide opportunities to experience a variety of settings both indoors and outdoors.

? model curiosity and observation by commenting and engaging children in conversation.

? play games that encourage engagement with others and the environment, such as peek-a-boo or hide-and-seek.

? ensure all children receive vision and hearing screenings.

? share information with families about how to provide safe environments that allow for infants and toddlers to explore and to get messy, without getting hurt.

? encourage families to take infants and toddlers on outdoor walks and field trips to public settings such as parks, zoos, farms, skywalks, and

grocery stores.

? model healthy and safe behaviors for children and families.

 

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Area 4: Social Studies

 

Awareness of the Relationship Between People and the Environment in Which They Live - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 4.3.PS Children demonstrate an increasing awareness of the environment in which they live, especially how people (including themselves) relate to that environment.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

4.3.PS.1 interacts with the world, first with familiar settings and then with less familiar ones; first in simple ways and then in more complex, exploratory ways.

4.3.PS.2 constructs meaning about himself or herself and the world through relevant and meaningful experiences with objects and the environment.

4.3.PS.3 recognizes aspects of the environment, such as roads, buildings, trees, gardens, bodies of water, or land formations.

4.3.PS.4 recognizes that people share the environment with other people, animals, and plants.

4.3.PS.5 understands that people can take care of the environment through activities and experiences, such as cleaning, conserving, reusing, and recycling.

4.3.PS.6 recognizes a variety of jobs and the work associated with them.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

A caring adult decides to add new materials to the art area for the children to become familiar with and use. The adult adds a variety of skin- colored papers, crayons, and colored pencils. Maya moves to the art area and notices the new materials. She says to the adult, “These are

new. May I use them to make a picture?” The adult replies, “Yes, go ahead and take them to the table.” Maya begins to select some paper and crayons and says, “These colors are more like our skin than the other paper we used to have.”

 

Brian takes a walk with a caring adult. Brian says, “That tree looks like the one in the front yard.” The adult responds, “Let’s go look at the tree and get a closer look.”

 

The adult notices as Shandra is cleaning up her snack area, she stops and looks at the trash can and the recycling bin. Shandra decides to rinse her plastic cup out and put it in the recycling bin. She then throws away the rest of the items in the trash can.

 

 

 

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Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark (continued):

An adult and several children work together to plant a garden. Angie asks, “Can we plant red flowers?” A caring adult responds, “Of course.” “My garden at my house has red flowers!” yells Luke. A squirrel sits in the garden. “Why is that squirrel here?” asks Angie. Luke answers, “He lives here. Squirrels live outside like the other animals.”

 

 

Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? provide opportunities and materials to play and explore within the inside and outside environments.

? provide opportunities to visit new places like museums, parks, and a variety of settings so they can observe and interact with things such as roads, buildings, trees, gardens, bodies of water, and land formations.

? encourage each child, through conversation, to make meaning of experiences with the inside environment and the outside world.

? ensure that outdoor play is part of everyday experiences.

? thoughtfully design spaces and environments that are inviting to children and full of interesting things to watch and do, as well as safe to explore.

? acquaint children with various community helpers.

? give each child meaningful jobs, such as watering plants, feeding animals, or cleaning tables.

? model appropriate behaviors in caring for the inside and outside environment.

 

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Area 4: Social Studies

 

 

Awareness of Past - Preschool (3 - 5 years) *

 

Standard 4.4.PS Children demonstrate an increasing awareness of past events and how those events relate to

one’s self, family, and community.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

4.4.PS.1 differentiates between past, present, and future.

4.4.PS.2 represents events and experiences that occurred in the past through words, play, and art.

4.4.PS.3 uses past events to construct meaning of the world.

4.4.PS.4 understands that events happened in the past and that the events relate to oneself, family, community, and culture.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

An adult reads a story about a boy on a trip. Sarah says, “I went in a car with my family to visit my grandma last summer. It was a long ride. We were gone six whole days.”

 

Josiah works on drawing a picture in the art area. He asks an adult to come and look at what he is doing. The adult says, “Tell me about what you are drawing.” Josiah answers, “This is a picture of the raft I went on in the river with my uncle and my brother last year. It was so much fun. The water splashed me and I got wet. I had to wear a helmet on my head, too.”

 

Abigail has a pile of photographs and blank paper. “What are you making?” asks a caring adult. Abigail responds, “I’m making a photo album. See?

I have pictures of when I was a little baby. That was a long time ago. And here is one from yesterday. And I’ll take more pictures tomorrow and

next year at my birthday and add them to my photo album.”

 

“I got a puppy yesterday,” says Marla. “I had a dog,” Martin adds, “but he went to live on a farm. That was a long time ago, I was little then.” Spencer says, “My mom says I can get a dog, but not until I’m bigger.”

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? provide opportunities for each child to explore materials that can encourage the retelling of stories and past experiences such as dramatic play props, puppets, books, and art materials.

? guide children to recall past experiences by asking them open-ended questions.

? encourage children to connect their present experiences with their past experiences.

? encourage children to bring photographs to share with others to demonstrate past events and experiences.

? allow flexibility in program or service goals so the goals can reflect and respond to a child’s past experiences or the past experiences of her or his family.

? engage children often in conversations related to events and experiences in their lives.

? take pictures of children’s experiences and make the pictures accessible to encourage conversation about past events.

 

 

* preschool standard only - awareness of past events is not developmentally appropriate for infants and toddlers

 

 

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Creative

Arts

 

 

 

Area 5: Creative Arts

 

 

Art - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 5.1.IT Infants and toddlers participate in a variety of sensory and art-related experiences.

 

 

Benchmarks:

The infant…

5.1.IT.1 gazes at a picture, photo, or mirror images.

5.1.IT.2 manipulates and explores play materials within the environment.

 

The older infant and toddler also…

5.1.IT.3 expresses interest in art-related experiences and media.

5.1.IT.4 engages in experiences that support creative expression.

5.1.IT.5 chooses and experiments with a variety of art materials such as playdough, crayons, chalk, water, markers, and paint.

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Tran, during tummy time, picks up his head and turns towards his smiling reflection in the mirror.

 

Paolo picks up the marker. First, he makes vertical marks on the paper, then horizontal. He also makes dots. Then, he puts the marker on the side and rolls it back and forth.

 

Pat places her finger in the red finger paint and touches the paper. She swirls her finger on the paper, making a mark. She then puts her hand in the paint and places it on the paper. “Sun!” she exclaims.

 

Joathim paints sidewalk designs with a short-handled four-inch brush and a small pail of green-colored water. Tristen pounds her fist on top of a small ball of playdough chanting, “Roll it. Pat it. Mark it with a T.”

Elijah explores the applesauce on his highchair tray, moving the applesauce with his fingers.

 

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Adult Supports - With infants and toddlers, caring adults:

? provide supervised daily opportunities for creative expression that reflect the home cultures of the families served.

? use descriptive words to point out colors, shapes, and textures during play and art experiences.

? establish safe environments and use age appropriate materials for children’s exploration within the inside and outside environment.

With toddlers, adults:

? provide a variety of safe, hazard-free art materials such as crayons, markers, paper, and paint brushes for each child to explore while supervised.

? prepare a safe, hazard-free environment with a variety of developmentally appropriate materials that are non-toxic and not harmful if mouthed or swallowed, and approved by the Art and Creative Materials Institute (ACMI).

? encourage each child to explore all art materials in a variety of ways, rather than focusing on finished ‘products’ such as toilet roll butterflies, pre-patterned art, or coloring books.

? provide creative arts experiences in the outdoor environment.

? model and encourage children to practice hand washing before and after each use of sensory materials.

 

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Area 5: Creative Arts

 

 

Art - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 5.1.PS Children participate in a variety of art and sensory-related experiences.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

5.1.PS.1 uses a variety of drawing and art materials, such as drawing utensils, paint, clay, and wood to create original works, form, and meaning.

5.1.PS.2 expresses ideas about his or her own artwork and the artwork of others, relating artwork to what is happening in the environment or life experiences.

5.1.PS.3 demonstrates care and persistence when involved in art projects.

5.1.PS.4 plans and works cooperatively to create drawings, paintings, sculptures, and other art projects.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Keith dips a brush into yellow paint. He moves the brush across the paper up and down, then side to side. He dips the other brush in blue paint, then paints large slashes back and forth. A caring adult says, “Tell me about your painting, Keith.” Keith replies, “I used lots of yellow and blue.” Pointing to a green triangular shape, he says “Hey look—there’s a Christmas tree!” The adult says, “I see the tree, too—and it is green, like a Christmas tree. When yellow and blue are mixed together, they make green.”

 

While outside, Ashley gathers a few wooden blocks and arranges them into neat piles. She then collects several small stones and sticks. Ashley carefully arranges the stones and sticks on top and looks at the structure for a moment. She announces, “I made a sculpture!”

 

Ana approaches Cecilia and asks, “Do you want to do art with me?” Cecilia responds, “Sure. We can draw a picture. I’ll get crayons.” Ana says, “I’ll get paper to draw on.” Both girls sit at the table and begin to color on a sheet of paper.

 

Oliver, Aurora, Isla, and Ben made puppets from fabric, paper towel tubes, pipe cleaners, and markers to tell the story they wrote about weather.

Oliver used his puppet to talk about his fear of thunderstorms.

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

* provide a variety of art and sensory materials in indoor and outdoor environments.

* encourage each child to express his or her own ideas in artwork without providing models, directions, or pre-made components.

* display a variety of children’s artwork at the eye level of the children.

* provide a supportive atmosphere where each child is encouraged to share his or her art experiences.

* prepare a safe, hazard-free environment with a variety of developmentally appropriate materials that are non-toxic and not harmful if mouthed or swallowed, and approved by the Art and Creative Materials Institute (ACMI).

* model and encourage each child to practice good hand hygiene before and after use of sensory materials.

* talk with children about their creations and discoveries, introducing new vocabulary when applicable.

 

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Area 5: Creative Arts

 

 

Music, Rhythm, and Movement - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 5.2.IT Infants and Toddlers participate in a variety of rhythm, music, and movement experiences.

 

 

Benchmarks:

The infant or toddler…

5.2.IT.1 shows interest in songs, tones, rhythms, voices, and music.

5.2.IT.2 experiments with a variety of  age-appropriate instruments and sound-making objects.

  5.2.IT.3 enjoys exploring ways of interacting with others through touch and motion. The toddler also…

5.2.IT.4 chooses and participates in music and movement experiences.

5.2.IT.5 sings simple songs and participates in finger plays.

5.2.IT.6 sings daily songs to recognize the patterns throughout their day.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

An adult plays music. Andy starts moving his feet to the music, bobbing up and down as the adult claps his hands. Charlie enjoys playing with a sound-making toy by pushing the buttons to make the musical sound.

Vivian has the necessary time to discover and engage with instruments and sound-making objects. She watches, grasps, mouths, shakes, rolls, transfers, and drops the instrument, and experiences all the physical effects of those actions on the objects.

 

An adult plays music or sings a song and helps Marley experience the steady beat through patting, moving, clapping, bouncing, or playing musical instruments to the beat.

 

As the adult and children sing, Hyun-Joo joins in by saying, “The wheels on the bus go round and round.” She moves her hands in a circular motion while singing.

 

 

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Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark (continued):

An adult helps Solomon experience steady beat of “Pat -a - Cake“ while bouncing Solomon on the adult’s lap. The adult also does the actions with the words “roll it” and “pat it.” The adult bounces Solomon to the beat while singing “Pop Goes the Weasel” and then does a quick lift in the air with the final line of the song.

 

An adult sings the “ABC” song every day while children wash their hands for snack time and lunchtime, so they have ample time to scrub their hands.

 

An adult sings the same song every day, as a ritual, before they begin eating.

 

Chris is crying and restless. An adult plays soothing music from Chris’ native language. Chris calms down and stops crying.

 

Lily plays rhythm sticks as the caring adult sings a song or to a recording. The adult encourages Lily’s actions and challenges her with more ways to play the sticks such as play up high or down low, or play softly or loudly.

 

Spencer enjoys moving his body up and down while singing “The People on the Bus Go Up and Down.” He flies around the room while doing a rhyme about an airplane. He mimics the appropriate number of fingers while reciting “Five Little Monkeys Jumping on the Bed.” He knows and asks for his favorite songs regularly.

 

As the caring adult sings, Georgia makes sound effects. Louie repeats rhythmic phrases or motions during a story.

 

Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? join each child daily in singing and movement experiences.

? incorporate rhymes into daily routines, providing rituals and a predictable pattern for the day.

? use songs to transition from one activity to another.

? provide toddlers with opportunities to discover, engage with, listen to, and experience various age-appropriate instruments.

? provide each child with opportunities to participate in musical experiences and traditions reflecting the home cultures of the families served, in both indoor and outdoor environments.

? incorporate large and small motor movement with a mixture of quiet and active music experiences for each child.

? provide ample space, both indoors and outdoors, for children to dance and to move freely.

? regularly introduce and model new movement experiences.

 

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Area 5: Creative Arts

 

 

Music, Rhythm, and Movement - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 5.2.PS Children participate in a variety of music and movement experiences.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

5.2.PS.1 participates in a variety of musical and rhythmic experiences, including singing, dancing, listening, playing simple rhythmic and pitched instruments, and creating and singing chants, rhymes, and finger plays from diverse cultures.

5.2.PS.2 demonstrates meaningful creative and imaginative responses, including taking on pretend roles, when listening to music to reflect the expressive elements of music.

5.2.PS.3 notices differences in high and low sounds (pitch), long and short sounds (rhythm), loud and quiet sounds (dynamics), fast and slow sounds (tempo), and differences between instruments or sounds (timbre).

5.2.PS.4 recognizes patterns in songs and rhymes and repeats them, using songs, chants or instruments, including the development of ability to keep beat.

5.2.PS.5 demonstrates an awareness of music and sound as part of daily life indoors and outdoors.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Stacey listens to a song on a CD player. She picks up some scarves nearby and begins to move to the music. A caring adult asks, “What does the music make you want to do?” “I’m flying,” replies Stacey. The adult says, “You’re using your arms to fly. Tell me more about the music.” Stacey responds, “It makes me fly fast.” “The music does have a fast tempo,” says the adult.

 

A caring adult is singing “Old Macdonald Had a Farm” with Tykisha. The adult says, “What other animal can we sing about?” Tykisha replies, “An elephant.” The adult says, “What sound does an elephant make?” Tykisha makes a sound and they keep singing together.

 

 

Children use maracas they created and sing a song about rain. The adult says, “Now it’s raining just a little bit, just a sprinkle. What will it sound like?” The children play the maracas very softly. The adult says, “Now it’s beginning to rain a little harder.” The children play a little louder. The adult says, “Now it’s raining very hard!” The children play very loudly. The adult says, “Now the rain is slowing.” The children begin to play

gradually slower.

 

 

 

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Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark (continued):

 

Samantha plays a drum and as she explores the different sounds, the caring adult asks open-ended questions such as “What's another way to play the drum?” and “How would you describe that sound?” and “Which sound do you like best?”  Samantha answers the questions and makes different sounds on the drum.

 

Kole listens to a story about animals and imitates the movements of animals such as hops like a rabbit, jumps like a frog, and gallops like a horse.

He decides to experiment with different instruments to find one that sounds like a galloping horse.

 

Norah dances to a ‘move and freeze’ song, dancing with a ribbon when she hears the music, and freezing every time the music stops.

 

A caring adult plays two different instruments such as a jingle bell and a triangle behind or under a blanket. Sarah identifies the instrument based on hearing the sound (timbre), without seeing it.

 

Freddy uses his imagination to pretend to be a dinosaur, stomping around when he hears low-pitched music with a slow beat. Isabel is dancing to fast music, and changes her movements as the music changes to a slower song (tempo).

During instrument exploration time, the caring adult hands out rhythm sticks and notices Liam creates a variety of sounds, including loud and soft, and fast and slow with the sticks. The caring adult asks Liam which sound is his favorite.  He says he enjoys loud sounds and demonstrates this.

 

Emma enjoys swings during outside time and sings a song while swinging. She then hears a bird singing and tells a caring adult, “I hear a bird singing!”

 

Selah sings a hello song with her class to start their day. She recognizes her feelings and says, “This music makes me feel happy.”

 

 

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

* provide a variety of music materials daily, keeping the materials accessible to support child choice during play experiences.

* provide a variety of music, such as lively music to encourage movement, and quiet, soothing music to calm and relax the children, and includes a variety of music from children’s cultures.

* model and encourage each child to express herself or himself through music-related experiences throughout each day, both indoors and outdoors.

* incorporate various forms of music and movement into circle or group time, encouraging children to dance and to move their bodies in various ways such as clapping, tapping, rocking, swaying, walking, galloping, hopping, skipping, and marching.

* incorporate finger plays and rhymes with small manipulatives or finger puppets that focus on small muscle movements.

* adapt activities and materials to involve children with varying abilities in music and movement activities.

* encourage children to create a variety of sounds that help bring life to musical concepts such as loud or soft, fast or slow, and long or short.

* provide ribbon, scarves, shakers, drums, rhythm sticks, maracas, and other age-appropriate instruments and props to encourage different movement experiences.

* provide shared and interactive musical experiences that make children feel part of a group and develop social experiences through circle songs and singing games.

* talk about children’s rhythms and musical sounds using open-ended questions such as “How would you describe that sound?” or “Which sounds do you like best? or “What’s another way you could play or sing that?”

* sing with children throughout each day, making music a part of routines and rituals.

 

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Area 5: Creative Arts

 

 

Dramatic Play - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 5.3.IT Infants and toddlers engage in dramatic play experiences.

 

 

Benchmarks:

The infant and toddler…

5.3.IT.1 imitates the sounds, facial expressions, gestures, or behaviors of another person.

5.3.IT.2 imitates the actions and sounds of animals, people, and objects.

 

The toddler also…

5.3.IT.3 engages in dramatic play in both indoor and outdoor environments.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Jason is lying down. A caring adult pats his back. Toni watches the adult, then comes over and pats Jason’s back. Amy mouths a toy telephone. She hears the real phone ring and puts the toy phone receiver to her ear.

Maria rocks the baby doll in her child-sized rocker. She hums a tune and says, “Love you baby,” while bending down to kiss the doll. She looks to a nearby adult and says, “You kiss baby, too.” The adult kisses the baby.

 

Mary Sue picks up a block and pretends to drink from it. She hands it to the adult, who also pretends to drink from the block. Mary Sue takes the block and holds it to the teddy bear’s mouth, saying “Drink, teddy.”

 

While playing in the sandbox, a child finds a play plate, puts sand on it, and brings it to the teacher saying, “I made you some soup.”

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

* provide space, time, and materials from children’s home cultures to use in imitating actions and simple roles in dramatic play experiences for both indoor and outdoor environments.

* play with each child in dramatic play to model healthy behaviors.

* prepare a safe, hazard free environment with a variety of developmentally appropriate materials. With toddlers, caring adults:

* provide opportunities for each child to play and to interact with others during dramatic play such as washing the baby dolls.

* provide developmentally appropriate materials that encourage healthy behaviors, such as fresh fruit and vegetable play foods, and safety equipment such as helmets, for use in dramatic play.

 

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Area 5: Creative Arts

 

 

Dramatic Play - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 5.3.PS Children engage in dramatic play experiences.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

5.3.PS.1 shows creativity and imagination when using materials.

5.3.PS.2 assumes different roles in dramatic play situations.

5.3.PS.3 interacts with peers in dramatic play experiences that become more extended and complex.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Kegan, Hunter, and Diego play in the dramatic play corner. They put on firefighter hats and yellow slickers, and aim a short hose at the playhouse.

Diego says, “We need lots of water to put out the fire.” Hunter adds, “We can throw buckets of water at the fire, too.” They start throwing

buckets of pretend water at the playhouse. Jessica watches nearby. A caring adult notices and says, “Jessica, do you want to help the firefighters?” Jessica nods. The adult says, “Tell them you want to help fight the fire.” Jessica approaches the boys and says, “I want to fire fight.”  “You could drive the fire truck,” responds Kegan. Jessica runs to put on a hat and yellow slicker, and gets behind the large steering wheel.

 

Children ride trikes and Nikko decides to use the plastic blocks to make a convenience store next to the trike path. He asks Caroline to get him some sticks for “beef sticks” and tree leaves for “cookies.” Nikko calls to the other children on trikes, “Come over to the store, and get some gas and some snacks!”

 

Oliver, Aurora, Isla, and Ben wrote a story about weather. They decided to make puppets to tell their story. Oliver used his puppet to talk about fear of thunderstorms.

 

An old row boat was buried in the dirt in the corner of the playground. Fishing poles, an old tackle box, and paper worms attached to pipe cleaner hooks are in the boat. Gorja sees the boat and says, “Sammy, come in the boat with me, we have to catch a fish for dinner.” Sammy gets in and they pretend to fish. Jimmy and Callie come to the boat to get the fish and take the fish to the play house to “cook” for dinner.

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

* provide an environment, both indoors and outdoors, with sufficient space, time, props, and materials for each child to play and interact with peers, to ‘try on’ and to ‘carry out’ different roles, both familiar and unfamiliar.

* encourage each child, with coaching as needed, to interact with peers in dramatic play experiences.

* make themselves available to play with children, extending play by adding conversation and materials to scenarios or ideas the children already created.

* encourage children to write or to draw stories, then to act out the stories.

* provide props representing the diverse cultures of the children, community, and world.

 

 

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Communication, Language,

and Literacy

 

 

 

Area 6: Communication, Language, and Literacy

 

 

Language Understanding and Use - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 6.1.IT Infants and toddlers understand and use communication and language for a variety of purposes.

 

 

Benchmarks:

The infant or toddler, in home language and in English…

6.1.IT.1 responds to the vocalizations and communications, verbal and nonverbal, of familiar adults.

6.1.IT.2 uses vocalizations and gestures to gain attention from others.

6.1.IT.3 uses vocalizations and gestures to communicate wants and needs.

   6.1.IT.4 increases both listening (receptive) and speaking (expressive) vocabulary. The toddler also…

6.1.IT.5 progresses to using words and then to simple sentences to communicate.

6.1.IT.6 participates in conversations that include taking turns, using both receptive (listening) and expressive (speaking)

language skills.

6.1.IT.7 answers simple questions.

6.1.IT.8 follows simple directions.

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Gail stands by the couch, watching a caring adult read a book to Sandi. Gail says, “Me read.” The adult asks, “Would you like to join us, Gail? You can sit right here.” Gail smiles and climbs on to the couch next to the adult.

 

Kaili is sitting near a familiar adult. She begins to wave her hands. The adult smiles at her and responds, “Hi Kaili. Te veo (I see you).” Kaili waves her hands more vigorously and smiles. The adult waves his hands, still smiling, and says, “Estamos jugando (We’re playing)”. Kaili continues to wave her hands and giggles. The adult joins in the laughter.

 

Carrie looks at the small kitten that Alyssa brought today. Carrie says, “Puppy.” The caring adult says, “Yes, this is furry and has four legs like your puppy, but we call that a kitten. See, it has whiskers.” Carrie looks and says, “Kitten.”

 

 

 

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Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark (continued):

Joshua sits in a chair. He watches a caring adult move around the room while the adult describes what she is doing. The adult asks, “Are you looking for me? Here I am getting lunch for us.” Joshua coos and pounds the table. She responds with, “Oh, are you hungry? It will be time to eat soon.”

 

While playing outside in the sandbox. Julian holds up a bucket with sand in it. A familiar adult says, “Oh, you found a bucket with sand. The sand is smooth. Can you fill the bucket with more sand?”

 

During snack time, Ana signs “more.” A caring adult responds with sign language for more and verbalizes, “More? Do you want more crackers, Ana?”

 

 

Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

* describe children’s routines, experiences, and play in English and in each child’s home language.

* repeat and expand each child’s vocalizations, introducing new vocabulary as appropriate.

* respond promptly to children’s vocalizations and communication.

* take intentional action to learn from family members, how and when home languages are used with children, valuing and respecting each

child’s home language.

* learn key words, phrases, and sentences in each child’s home language.

* intentionally support bilingualism through experiences such as reading stories in the home language of each child.

* incorporate the diversity of families’ languages and culture into the environment.

* help families understand the benefits of learning two languages.

* make eye contact with each child while speaking or listening, with considerations for cultural practices and special needs.

* individualize strategies to facilitate communication with each child.

* acknowledge and expand each child’s response or comments to demonstrate understanding and prompt more conversation.

* place themselves at the child’s eye level when speaking with him/her whenever possible.

 

 

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Area 6: Communication, Language, and Literacy

 

 

Language Understanding and Use - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 6.1.PS Children understand and use communication and language for a variety of purposes.

 

 

Benchmarks:

The child…

6.1.PS.1 demonstrates a steady increase in listening (receptive language) and speaking (expressive language) vocabulary.

6.1.PS.2 initiates, listens, and responds in relationship to the topics of conversations with other children (peers) and adults.

6.1.PS.3 speaks in phrases and sentences of increasing length and complexity.

6.1.PS.4 follows oral directions that involve several actions.

6.1.PS.5 asks and answers a variety of questions.

6.1.PS.6 demonstrates knowledge of the rules of conversations such as taking turns while speaking.

 

The child, who is an English language learner, also…

6.1.PS.7 uses her or his home language, sometimes in combination with English, to communicate with people.

6.1.PS.8 demonstrates ongoing development and improvement in vocabulary and complexity in use of home language.

6.1.PS.9 demonstrates engagement at home or the classroom in literacy activities to relate to her or his home language.

6.1.PS.10 demonstrates receptive (listening) and expressive (speaking) English language skills to be able to comprehend the

English language.

6.1.PS.11 demonstrates engagement in English literacy activities to understand and respond to books, storytelling, and  songs presented in English.

 

 

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Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Drew and a caring adult are eating lunch. Drew says, “My shirt is green like the peas.” The adult responds, “Yes, both your shirt and the peas are

green. What else is green?” Drew replies, “Grass and snakes.”

 

Tamra says, “Look, a gold button.” A nearby adult says, “It is big gold button, Tamra. We call this big, gold, shiny button a badge. The police officer

wears a badge.” Tamra responds, “A gold badge.”

 

A caring adult approaches a child who is painting. The adult asks, “Are you painting?” The child replies, “I do arboles.” The adult responds

“Arboles? Trees?” The child states, “He go on tree. He climb.” The adult uses a gesture and says, “He is climbing.”

 

A caring adult makes sandwiches from pita bread for snack. The adult asks, “What is different about this bread?” Nelly responds, “The pita bread is like an envelope.” Maya adds, “This bread is different. There’s no crust.” After snack, the adult reads the book, Bread, Bread, Bread, to the children. Together, they make a list of all the different kinds of bread in the book and add others they ate before that weren’t in the book. The adult and children also discuss other names for bread.

 

While reading "Where’s Spot," a caring adult asks a variety of questions. “Did Spot have a good hiding place?” Andy searches through his communication book and finds the symbol for “no” and a picture of a tree and puts them in his sentence strip. Andy holds the strip up and shakes his head “no” and then points to the tree. The adult says, “Andy, you think Spot didn’t have a good hiding place. You think behind the tree is a better hiding place.” Andy smiles and shakes his head, “Yes”.

 

A small group of children play a game outside. Maria takes a turn taking action picture cards from a bag and arranges them in the sequence she wants the others to follow. After she arranges the pictures, Maria says, “Hop on one foot, turn around, then sit down.” The children perform the actions.

 

While on a walk through the neighborhood, Sam discovers a feather. A caring adult walking with Sam asks, “Where do you think the feather came from?” Sam says, “Feathers come from birds. Does it hurt them when they lose their feathers?” The adult says, “No, it’s like hair falling out when you wash it.”

 

During a home visit, the adult watches as Beatriz and her grandmother have a long conversation in Spanish.

 

Vinh tells a caring adult about what he did with his family at a cultural festival. He uses Vietnamese words to describe food he ate and the dances he saw.

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

* model and intentionally teach new vocabulary, by explaining the meaning of new words in conversations, books, songs, and rhymes, and use the new vocabulary repeatedly by incorporating the vocabulary into play, other experiences, and learning materials.

* provide many daily opportunities to engage children in conversations by making comments, by asking questions, and by responding.

* create opportunities for children to practice following simple directions.

* position themselves, whenever possible, at children’s eye level when speaking with children.

* ask a variety of open-ended, including who, why, how, and what if questions based on each child’s language skills so all children have opportunities to contribute to conversations and discussions.

* understand and accept the current stage of language development of English language learners, and tailor interactions to meet their needs such as predictable and repetitive speech and phrases; make sure speech matches the item or example in the conversation; serve as an interpreter when needed; use gestures, facial expressions, pictures, and props such puppets or other visuals.

* intentionally promote inclusion of all children of varying abilities or are English language learners.

* pair children with varying abilities or dual language learners with helpful peers (other children) who can serve as good language and peer models.

* use adaptive strategies and equipment such as communication boards, computers, hearing aids, and auditory trainers to assist communication with children with diverse abilities.

* learn key words, phrases, and sentences in each child’s home language and use the words, phrases, and sentences with the children.

* promote the value of bilingualism (speaking in more than one language) and strive to maintain the home language.

* provide materials and resources, to families whose home language is not English, and support the use of home language, so family members can provide rich reading experiences to their children in the home language.

* have parents, or others speaking each child’s home language, record songs, stories, or rhymes for use in the early care and education setting.

 

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Area 6: Communication, Language, and Literacy

 

 

Early Literacy - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 6.2.IT Infants and toddlers engage in early reading experiences.

 

 

Benchmarks:

The infant and toddler…

6.2.IT.1 explores or shows interest in books by picking them up, mouthing them, carrying them, or flipping through pages.

6.2.IT.2 focuses on a book or the reader when hearing stories read to him or her.

6.2.IT.3 gazes at or points to pictures in books.

  6.2.IT.4 responds to or engages in songs, rhyming games, or finger plays with a familiar adult. The toddler also…

6.2.IT.5 points to, labels, and/or talks about objects, events, or people within books.

6.2.IT.6 enjoys and repeats songs, rhymes, or finger plays.

6.2.IT.7 answers simple questions related to books.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Kai and Ben are sitting by a caring adult listening to a book. Kai points to a picture and says, “Butterfly.” The adult responds, “Right, Kai—that’s a butterfly. It is bright orange.”

 

A caring adult begins to chant, “Pat a cake, pat a cake, baker’s man. Make me a cake as fast as you can.” Tiwanna, a two year-old, imitates the patting motions and joins in with the adult for at least a portion of the rhyme .

 

Becca looks at an animal book with a familiar adult. The adult names the animals and turns the pages after a few seconds. Becca grabs the page and turns back saying, “Dog!” The adult says, “Yes, it is a brown dog.” She pauses for a short while for Becca to continue looking at the page. Becca then turns the page.

 

While outside, an adult reads a book about leaves and how they change colors in the fall. The adult points to or shows the children leaves and talks about the colors.

 

 

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

* talk with each child during routines, such as diapering and mealtime, and during play experiences, using English and words from the child’s

home language.

* read books daily, individually or in small groups of children.

* respond to children’s interests in book; talk about pictures and actions, with repeated exchanges between child and adult; and point to print on occasion.

* provide a variety of books, including both fiction and non-fiction books, for each child to explore.

* provide opportunities daily for each child to participate in finger plays, rhymes, and songs, including those in sign language, the home

language, or representing children’s home cultures.

* provide outdoor experiences with books and stories.

 

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Area 6: Communication, Language, and Literacy

 

 

Early Literacy - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 6.2.PS Children engage in early reading experiences.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

6.2.PS.1 expresses an interest and enjoyment in listening to books and attempts to read familiar books (print motivation).

6.2.PS.2 displays book handling knowledge by turning the book right side up, turning one page at a time, recognizing familiar books by the cover, pointing to words as they talk about or retell stories using books, and using left to right sweep (print awareness).

6.2.PS.3 shows an awareness of print such as pointing to familiar words or letters (print awareness).

6.2.PS.4 understands sentences are made of words and words are made of individual letters (concepts of print).

6.2.PS.5 understands increasingly and uses a variety of words (vocabulary).

6.2.PS.6 shows increasing comprehension of a story through retelling the story and/or recognizing story elements such as the plot or characters (comprehension and story retelling).

6.2.PS.7 recognizes increasingly and names more of the letters in their first and last name and letters they see frequently

(letter knowledge).

6.2.PS.8 recognizes most upper and lower case letters (letter knowledge).

6.2.PS.9 produces the sound of some of the letters she or he knows (phonics).

6.2.PS.10 identifies words that rhyme from a group of three words: cat, rug, hat (phonological awareness - rhyme).

6.2.PS.11 identifies the beginning sound in words, such as identifying two words that start with the same sound (phonological awareness – alliteration).

6.2.PS.12 identifies the syllables in his or her name and in familiar objects or words by clapping and segmenting the syllables

(phonological awareness – segmenting syllables).

6.2.PS.13 blends syllables to identify a word, object, or picture (phonological awareness – blending syllables).

 

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Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

A caring adult reads “The Very Hungry Caterpillar” to Dara. Before reading the book, the adult talks about the title and the author, and asks, “What do you think the story is about?” Dara replies, “I think it is about a caterpillar, like those fuzzy ones I found yesterday.” (Print motivation, Story comprehension)

 

Rosita shows interest in listening to one of her family’s favorite stories in Spanish when her mother visits Rosita’s preschool. (Print motivation)

 

Lilly writes her name at the bottom of her drawing with help from a nearby adult. The adult says the letter names and Lilly writes them. (Print awareness and Letter knowledge)

 

On the floor of the classroom, a caring adult has made an upper and lower case “J” on the floor. After reading “Jamberry” by Bruce Degen and talking about the upper and lower case letters, some of the children can jump on the uppercase “J” and jiggle on the lowercase “j” as the story mentions. (Letter knowledge)

 

When the class sings a nursery rhyme, Henry completes the last word of the line: “Twinkle, twinkle little star, how I wonder what you  ”

with the correct word ‘are’. (Phonological Awareness - rhyme)

 

A caring adult says, “I want everybody whose name starts with a \k\ sound to stand up.” Chris, Candi and Katie stand up. (Phonological Awareness

- alliteration)

 

A small group of children stand and stomp the number of syllables in a word. They listen to each child’s name. The adult says Tamea’s name

(Ta-me-a) slowly, and models stomping and counting syllables by saying, “I heard three sounds in Ta-me-a.  I stomped my foot three times.

Let’s try this together.” (Phonological Awareness - syllable awareness)

 

Hans imitates the sounds as the caring adult sounds out the individual sounds in the word bat as /b/ - /a/ - /t/ and then puts them together to say the single word, “bat.”

 

While reading the book “Who Took the Cookies from the Cookie Jar?” by Bonnie Lass and Philemon Sturges, the adult points to a picture of a bird in the story (the raven) and asks what it is. Vinh, who listened carefully to the story and heard the adult define the unfamiliar words in the story, says, “raven.” (Vocabulary)

 

Betty Sue and Aislinn roll a cube with six pictures of children expressing different emotions. As they roll the cube back and forth, they both shout the name of the feeling - mad, happy, angry, etc. - and demonstrate the feeling. (Vocabulary)

 

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Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark (continued):

After telling the “Three Little Pigs,” the caring adult tapes pictures of houses, pigs, and a wolf to blocks or other sturdy objects to create story retelling pieces. The teacher asks “What kind of house did the first pig build?” Amanda goes over and picks up the picture of the house of straw. (Story re-telling and comprehension)

 

 

Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

* display, draw attention to, and read a variety of print using signs, posters, clothing, books, children’s magazines, big books, and recipes many times during the day.

* read and provide access to different types of books such as picture storybooks, participation books, predictable books, wordless books, poetry books, nursery rhyme and rhyming books, alphabet books, counting books, narratives, informational books, and folktales.

* provide access to printed materials, labels, and a variety of books in English and home languages, that represent fiction and non-fiction.

* invite children to use the “reading corner” where they can choose from a variety of books and explore the book on their own.

* incorporate sounds and words from each child’s home language in daily conversations, activities, and book reading.

* provide books representing each child’s culture.

* introduce new words daily to build children’s vocabulary.

* encourage each child to talk about life experiences and opportunities to retell stories after listening to books.

* provide many opportunities for each child to hear, say, and sing rhymes in finger plays, books, and songs.

* encourage each child to identify initial sounds in words such as finding all the objects on a tray that start with the “b” sound.

* add letter forms to the sandbox for exploratory play outdoors.

* take books outside for children to read.

 

 

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Area 6: Communication, Language, and Literacy

 

 

Early Writing - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 6.3.IT Infants and toddlers engage in early writing experiences.

 

 

Benchmarks:

The infant…

   6.3.IT.1 grasps and/or manipulates a variety of objects in his or her environment. The older infant and toddler also…

6.3.IT.2 scribbles spontaneously, usually using a fist grip.

6.3.IT.3 shows increasing skill in manipulating objects such as stacking several items, using pegboards, and mastering the use of eating utensils.

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

The caring adult feeds Lanxton applesauce. Lanxton reaches for the spoon and pulls it out of the caring adult’s hand. He grasps it tightly and guides the spoon to his mouth.

 

At the lunch table, Thela picks up her fork and holds it upside down, poking at the peas on her plate. She looks at the fork for a moment and turns it around. Thela tries poking at her peas again and gets a few on her fork. She eats them.

 

Tami picks up the crayon in her fist, turns it to the paper, and makes several scribble marks.

 

Collin uses his fingers to poke the playdough. He picks up a plastic utensil and makes cutting marks in the playdough.

 

While outside, Sayomi uses a piece of chalk to mark lines across a large rock. Then she picks up several small pebbles and arranges them on the top surface of the rock.

 

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Adult Supports -

With infants, caring adults:

* encourage children to spend time on their stomachs to build back, arm, and shoulder muscle strength and coordination.

* provide experiences for children to use small motor movements and wrist rotation by playing with and exploring a variety of materials and experiences such as water play, stacking blocks, or dumping and filling tubs.

 

With toddlers, caring adults:

* give each child supervised opportunities to use pincer grasp (finger-thumb) skills in a variety of activities such as eating or grasping.

* provide daily access to writing tools, such as crayons or markers.

* provide opportunities for children to observe adult writing.

* encourage each child to explore ways to practice scribbling or early drawing by breaking down the skill, adding prompts, or providing repetition.

* allow each child to choose which hand to use for writing and to use a grip most comfortable for the child.

 

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Area 6: Communication, Language, and Literacy

 

 

Early Writing - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 6.3.PS Children engage in early writing experiences.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

6.3.PS.1 attempts to communicate with others using scribbles, shapes, pictures, letter-like forms and/or letters in writing.

6.3.PS.2 experiments with a variety of writing tools such as pencils, crayons, brushes, markers, and digital tools.

6.3.PS.3 uses expressive (speaking) language to share intended meaning of drawings and writing.

6.3.PS.4 starts to demonstrate interest in learning to write letters, especially the letters in his or her name.

6.3.PS.5 uses invented spelling consisting of beginning sounds to represent a whole word.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

The children went to the post office. When they return, many decide to send letters to friends and parents. Some children choose to use pencils to write. Others use markers to draw and the adult writes a note about the drawing.

 

The caring adult watches Jessie paint.   The adult asks, “Do you want me to write your name on your painting, Jessie, or do you want to write it?” Jessie responds, “You do it.” The adult prints “J-e-s-s-i-e”, saying the letters as he prints them. Jessie looks at her name, picks up the pencil, and tries to copy it. She writes the letters, reversing the ‘S’ and putting the ‘E’ below the ‘I’ because she ran out of room on the paper.

 

Marco decides to write a book after learning about authors. He gathers several sheets of paper and draws on each page. Underneath each picture he writes one or two letters to describe what is in the picture. Marco calls a caring adult over to read his book. He points to the first picture with ‘C’ written underneath it and says, “Once there was a cat.”

 

Ty and Piper play in the kitchen dramatic play area. He sees three baskets, each labeled as fruit, cheese, and vegetables. The caring adult asks Ty and Piper while pointing to the basket label, “What do you like best? Fruit, cheese, or vegetables?” Both children say “cheese,” and point to the basket with the cheese label.

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

* provide a variety of writing materials and digital tools for exploration within the inside and outside environments.

* encourage each child to participate in a variety of writing experiences such as on an easel, whiteboard, sidewalk, paper or digital screen.

* Model writing throughout the day with chart, labels, messages, invitations, and notes.

* guide each child to hold and use writing tools with the three-point grip, but letting the child decide which hand is most comfortable for writing.

* encourage each child to copy his or her name.

* provide adaptive writing tools and materials to aid children with varying abilities.

* encourage children to share and to discuss paintings and drawings.

* provide materials and opportunities for each child to learn writing in his or her home language.

* respond to children’s interests in writing and learning letters.

* take dictation from a child by writing exactly what the child says. Read the dictation back to the child while tracking the words with your finger.

* promote fine motor skills (see “Adult Supports” under Standard 2.3: Small Motor Development).

 

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Mathematics

 

 

 

Area 7: Mathematics

 

 

Comparison and Number - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 7.1.IT Infants and toddlers show increasing understanding of comparisons and amount, including use

of numbers and counting.

 

Benchmarks:

The infant…

  7.1.IT.1 begins to notice characteristics of objects such as size, color, shape, or quantity. The toddler…

7.1.IT.2 matches and sorts objects by size, color, shape, or quantity.

7.1.IT.3 begins to use simple counting in play and interactions, although numbers may occur out of order.

7.1.IT.4 makes simple comparisons between two objects using words like big, small, more, etc.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

At snack time, Carlos eats his crackers. He turns to the caring adult and holds up his plate, saying, “All gone.” The adult says, “Do you want more

crackers, Carlos?” Carlos says and signs, “More.” The adult puts some crackers on his plate.

 

The adult helps Mandi put on her mittens and says, “One, two.” Mandi holds up her hands, one at a time, and repeats, “One, two.”

 

Brandon uses large peg board. He puts all the blue pegs in one row, then all the red pegs in another row.

 

A caring adult sets a box of children’s socks on the floor. The adult says, “Can you help me find the socks that match?” She pulls out one sock and

Aydan reaches into the box to find the matching sock.

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? describe the groups of objects the child makes.

? provide space and materials for play and exploration (indoors and out) with multiple colors, shapes, and sizes for sorting and grouping.

? use numbers with each child to label actions such as counting shoes, toes, or crackers in routine dressing, feeding, and play experiences.

? use counting finger plays, rhymes, and songs with each child such as “One, two, buckle my shoe.”

? uses mathematics vocabulary during naturally occurring activities throughout the day, such as big, small, more, all gone, etc.

 

 

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Area 7: Mathematics

 

 

Numbers and Operations - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 7.1.PS Children understand counting, ways of representing numbers, and relationships between

quantities and numerals.

 

Benchmarks: The child…

7.1.PS.1 recognizes small quantities (1 to 5) without counting them (subitizing).

7.1.PS.2 counts to 20 verbally.

7.1.PS.3 points and counts 10-20 objects accurately.

7.1.PS.4 makes sets of 6-10 objects and describes parts.

7.1.PS.5 uses language such as more, less or the same amount to compare quantities.

7.1.PS.6 identifies numerals to 10 by name.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Amy, Tricia, and Alex play in the dramatic play area. Nadia decides to join them. Amy says, “You can’t play here now, Nadia—only three can be here.” She points to the sign in the interest center with the numeral 3 and three stick figures. Amy points to each of the three children in the area while saying “One, two, three - that’s us. You’re four. You have to wait.” Nadia goes to the block area.

 

During morning meeting, the attendance helper counts the number of children. Paul counts all children and announces “We have 20 children here today”

 

While playing a bingo game, the teacher holds up the next number and the children in the small group shout out, “That’s a 7,“ before finding the numeral 7 on the game board.

 

Jorge and the caring adult play a board game. Jorge rolls a die, looks at the spots on the die, and announces, “I got four.” Jorge moves his marker

four spaces.

 

Craig sorts his crackers into a line on his plate. He pushes them to one side of the plate one by one, counting aloud, “1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.” Phillip hears Craig and says, “You got six? No fair. You got more than me.” The caring adult says, “Let’s count your crackers and see how many you have, Phillip.” He moves his crackers and counts, “1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.” “Oh,” says Phillip, “I have six like Craig. I guess we have the same.”

 

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Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark (Continued):

While outside, children closely observe a bird feeder. Jacob and Sarah decide to build a bird feeder at the outdoor work bench. As the two children begin to work, the caring adult notices Amira, who speaks limited English, watching them. The adult approaches her and explains what’s going on by using birds from the dramatic play area. He gestures and points to the feeder as he leads her closer to the work area. Amira points to the feeder and her fingers to show how many birds are there. Amira changes the number of fingers as the number of birds change. Jacob and

Sarah join her. Communicating with gestures and words, they decide to build the feeder big enough for two birds and get two birds from dramatic play to measure for size.

 

 

Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? use counting finger plays, books, and number rhymes repeatedly. (Communication, Connections)*

? post the numerals 1-10 and simple pictures (icons) to show quantity. (Representation)*

? use daily routines to incorporate meaningful experiences involving counting, one-to-one correspondence and identifying quantity, such as setting the table and counting how many items are needed. (Problem Solving, Reasoning, Communication, Connections)*

? provide daily experiences with puzzles and manipulative materials that link numerals to pictures to represent quantity. (Problem Solving, Representation)*

? provide cooking experiences with recipes that link numerals to pictured objects. (Connections, Representation)*

? teach children to count in the languages of the children and families in the classroom. (Communication, Connections)*

? encourage children and families to share finger plays, songs, or rhymes in their home language. (Communication, Connections)*

? encourage children to count objects in nature. (Communication, Connections)*

? provide several opportunities for play and exploration of a variety of collections such as shells, rocks, keys buttons, bottle caps, milk tops;  and encourage children to share their findings with the other children. (Communication, Reasoning,  Connections, Representation, Problem Solving)*

? interact with children during play and routine experiences using open ended questions and ‘math talk’ as the opportunities arise. (Problem

Solving, Reasoning, Communication, Connections , Representation)*

 

*Italicized words reference the mathematical processes which are most likely addressed through these adult supports. A full definition of the five mathematical processes is found on page 228 (Alignment Overview) or access at https://iowacore.gov/content/standards-mathematical-practice.

 

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Area 7: Mathematics

 

 

Patterns - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 7.2.IT Infants and toddlers begin to recognize patterns.

 

 

Benchmarks:

The infant…

7.2.IT.1 demonstrates expectations for familiar sequences of routines and experiences such as crying when it is near feeding time.

The toddler…

7.2.IT.2 shows recognition of sequence in events or objects.

7.2.IT.3 repeats actions in sequence, such as finger plays.

7.2.IT.4 notices patterns and objects in the environment.

7.2.IT.5 organizes objects into groups during play and exploration.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Amni sees the adult putting food on the table. She gets her bib and crawls to the table. The adult says, “Pretty soon lunch will be ready, Amni.

After you wash your hands, we can eat.”

 

An adult and some children see a spider web in the tree. The adult describes the web shape and they sing “Eensy, Weensy Spider.” Meneacka

repeats the appropriate action during each phrase.

 

Mei-Mei takes the nesting cubes apart and places one small cube on top of one large cube, and puts a different small cube on top of another large cube.

 

Chloe plays ‘patty cake’ with her infant Alex.  Alex shows he enjoys the music by smiling and attempting to clap along.

 

Emma falls down, stands up and does not cry. Natalie, Emma’s mom, applauds and says, “Yay!” Emma falls down again and receives the same response (pattern).

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

* label patterns in objects for each child.

* use language to describe patterns or sequences of events, such “First we put your coat on, then we’ll go outside.”

* use finger plays and songs with action patterns that repeat.

* provide materials that vary in characteristics such as colored blocks, pop beads, and pinecones, to help children explore and to organize

objects.

* provide materials such as nesting cubes, bowls, and stacking rings that help children notice differences and to begin to arrange objects in a series.

 

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Area 7: Mathematics

 

 

Patterns - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

 

Standard 7.2.PS Children understand patterns.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

7.2.PS.1 recognizes, reproduces and creates patterns moving from simple to complex.

7.2.PS.2 extends patterns by predicting what comes next.

7.2.PS.3 describes patterns seen in natural and designed settings.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Ryan strings beads. He talks to himself while stringing: “First comes red, then white, then red, then white.” A caring adult says “You made a pattern, Ryan.” Ryan says, “Yep. It’s red, white, red - just like the stripes on the flag.” The adult responds, “Yes, you have the same colors as the stripes on the American flag: first red, next white. What’s the last color you’ll use?” Ryan says, “Red, the flag stripes start and end with red.”

 

During a trip to the zoo, a caring adult asks, “Does anyone notice patterns around us?” José says, “The zebra is a pattern. His stripes are black and white.” “And the tiger, too, with orange and black,” exclaims Jenny. “What about the bricks on that building?” asks Natasha. “Some are long and some are short. We did that with the blocks yesterday.”

 

As children gather for a story, the adult claps a pattern such as clap, clap, pause, clap, clap, pause). Children join in the pattern as they arrive. The adult asks, “What was my pattern?” Several children call out, “clap, clap, stop.” The adult says, “Who wants  to make a pattern for us?” and selects a volunteer. Allie pounds her fists on the floor in a series of three, pauses, and pounds the fists three more times.  The other children join in and she asks the children, “What’s my pattern?” Sam says, “Hit, hit, hit, pause. Now my turn.”

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? provide a variety of collections of materials, both natural and designed (human-made), throughout the environment to use in meaningful and purposeful ways to create patterns. (Representations, Problem Solving, Reasoning)*

? extend patterns by saying “What comes next?” (Communication, Reasoning, Problem Solving) *

? use English and each child’s home language to describe patterns. (Connections, Communication)*

? ask challenging questions to stimulate a child’s thinking, such as “Tell me about your pattern?” or “What if it started here? How would the pattern change?” or “ What can do if you run out of one of the materials in your pattern?” (Communication, Problem Solving, Reasoning)*

? provide opportunities and point out natural settings to children in daily living experiences such as fruit in the produce aisle, sound of windshield wipers, stripes on clothing, or the crunch of snow during a walk. (Communication, Connections)*

 

*Italicized words reference the mathematical processes which are most likely addressed through these adult supports. A full d efinition of the five mathematical processes is found on page 228 (Alignment Overview) or access at https://iowacore.gov/content/standards-mathematical-practice.

 

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Area 7: Mathematics

 

 

Shapes and Spatial Relationships - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 7.3.IT Infants and toddlers show increasing understanding of spatial relationships.

 

 

Benchmarks:

The infant…

7.3.IT.1 takes objects apart.

   7.3.IT.2 fills and empties containers. The toddler…

7.3.IT.3 takes objects apart and attempts to put them together.

7.3.IT.4 shows awareness of his or her own body space.

7.3.IT.5 matches similar shapes.

7.3.IT.6 follows simple direction related to positions such as in, on, under, up, or down.

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Rekha fills the container with water, empties it, and then repeats the action.

Riley works with a four-piece puzzle. He takes out the apple, and then puts it back in its hole.

The adult sings, “Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes” while she shows the actions. The next time, Matt touches each body part as it is named. Taylor snaps two interlocking blocks together, takes them apart, and then puts them back together.

Isabella cries every time another child gets near her space.

 

Tammy goes to the shelf and dumps out several toys, sometimes several times each day. The caring adult says, “Tammy, help me put some of these toys back in their tub.”

 

Marika puts one square with another square.

 

Caring adults give simple directions throughout the day such as “Put your cup on the table.” or “Throw your napkin in the garbage.”

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? describe spatial relationships, such as in, out, beside, on, and under, while each child explores the environment.

? give simple directions using positional words such as above, around, behind, or beside.

? supply simple multi-part toys, such as nesting toys, stacking rings, blocks, simple puzzles, and natural materials, such a pinecones and leaves.

? provide multiple containers of various size and shape to fill and empty with toys, and for use in sand or water play.

? determine areas indoors and outdoors to allow each child, including those with movement limitations, to experience personal space for movement and exploration.

? play with children and label items by their shape, such as “The door is a rectangle,” or “The top of the waste basket looks like a circle.”

 

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Area 7: Mathematics

 

 

Shapes and Spatial Relationships - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 7.3.PS Children understand shapes and spatial relationships

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

7.3.PS.1 demonstrates understanding of spatial words such as up, down, over, under, top, bottom, inside, outside, in front, and behind.

7.3.PS.2 identifies and describes two- and three-dimensional shapes.

7.3.PS.3 notices characteristics, similarities, and differences among shapes such as corners, points, edges, and sides.

7.3.PS.4 notices how shapes fit together and can be taken apart to form other shapes.

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

A caring adult reads aloud a book about shapes. Katy says, “I know where there is a triangle outside.” The adult says, “Where?” Katy replies, “On the roof.” The adult comments, “Let’s look for it when we’re outside.” While they are outside, several children look for Katy’s triangle. One child says, “Is this it?” Katy says, “Oh, I see that triangle, but it’s not the one I was looking at.” Finally, she points the children to the gable on the roof. “There’s my triangle,” says Katy. The adult asks, “Are there other triangles outside?” The children look around and begin to find other triangles.

 

Maliyah plays with blocks. She says to a nearby adult, “Look, two squares make a rectangle and two triangles make a square.”

 

While playing in the sandbox, Max says, “I’m filling the cubes with sand!”

 

Sharaya and Grant help set the table for lunch. Each child places placemats on the table, in front of each chair. The adult asks, “What will you put on the placemat, Sharaya?” Sharaya picks up one plate and places it on the placemat. The adult says, “You put the plate in the middle of the placemat. What else do we need on the placemat?” Grant brings a glass and places it above the plate. The adult says, “Grant, you put the glass above the plate.” The children announce, “What’s next?” Sharaya brings a napkin. A caring adult shows Sharaya and Grant how they can fold the square napkin into a triangle. Sharaya and Grant fold the napkins into triangles.

 

Clara works on a puzzle. She carefully puts pieces next to each other to see if they fit together. She struggles fitting a piece in the puzzle. A caring adult says, “Clara, look at the colors on the piece. Do you see green anywhere else in your puzzle?” Clara says, “I see green right here.” She places the puzzle piece into the correct space.

 

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

* provide a variety of books and materials for play and experiences related to shapes and spatial reasoning, such as three-dimensional figures and or blocks.

* use shape and spatial words in English and in each child’s home language to describe the environment, both indoors and outdoors.

(Communication, Connections)*

? provide three dimensional objects and containers for exploration and play.

? provide puzzles or toys to arrange items in sequence (seriation) for children to explore how objects fit together.

? assist children to recognize shapes in the environment and encourage them to draw what they see and to identify the shapes

(Communication, Representation, Connections)*

? join in play and assist children in exploration and reasoning with objects to name and describe different shapes,  how they are similar and different, and how the objects can go together. (Communication, Problem solving, Reasoning)*

 

*Italicized words reference the mathematical processes which are most likely addressed through these adult supports. A full definitio n of the five mathematical processes is found on page 228 (Alignment Overview) or access at https://iowacore.gov/content/standards-mathematical-practice.

 

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Area 7: Mathematics

 

Measurements - Preschool (3 - 5 years)*

 

Standard 7.4.PS Children understand comparisons and measurements

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

7.4.PS.1 sorts, classifies, and puts objects in series using a variety of properties.

7.4.PS.2 makes comparisons between several objects based on one or more attributes, such as length, height, weight, and area using words such as taller, shorter, longer, bigger, smaller, heavier, lighter, full, empty, length, height, and weight.

7.4.PS.3 measures objects using non-standard units of measurement, such as using blocks to determine how tall a child is.

7.4.PS.4 explores objects using standard measuring tools such as rulers, measuring cups, and balance scales.

7.4.PS.5 begins to demonstrate knowledge that measurement requires a ‘fair’ comparison starting at the same baseline or measuring the same property such as length, height, and volume.

7.4.PS.6 develops an awareness of simple time concepts within his or her daily life such as day, night; and sequence of usual daily events, such as breakfast, lunch, dinner, bedtime; outdoor time follows snack; and brushing teeth after a meal.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Jeffrey and Miguel are eating graham crackers. Miguel breaks his cracker in half and says, “Now I’ve got more than you—you’ve got one and I’ve got two.” Jeffrey breaks his cracker into many small pieces and says, “Now I’ve got more—I’ve got lots.” A caring adult says, “Tell me how they’re different.” Jeffrey says, “I’ve got more.” Miguel says, “But mine are bigger.”  The adult says, “And if you put them back together they make the same cracker.”

 

Brittany and Kyung are each building a tower with blocks. Brittany says, “Mine’s taller than yours.” Kyung adds a block and says, “Now mine’s taller.” Brittany adds a block, but her tower collapses, taking Kyung’s down also. Brittany suggests, “Let’s build towers that are the same!” They start to build their separate towers, matching block for block.

 

Mahvan and Eli disagree over whose shoes are bigger. “Let’s measure them!” shouts Eli. A caring adult suggests using crayons to measure the shoes. The children each take off a shoe and then lay the crayons end-to-end along the side of the shoes. “Mine is bigger,” announces Mahvan. “How do you know?” asks the adult. “Eli’s shoe is two crayons long and mine is two crayons and a little more.”

 

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Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark (continued):

A caring adult wrote, “How many people are in your family?” on the dry erase board, with columns for 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and more than 6. During center time, each child draws a picture of all the people in his or her family, counts them (with help), and places his or her name card in the column under the corresponding number for his or her family. During group time, the adult asks, “What can we tell about our families from the

chart?” Jan responds, “Lots of names are under the 3.” Jason adds, “My name is under the 4; so is Teddy’s.” Camara says, “Mine is the only card under the last one.” The adult asks, “Which one has the most names?” Jan says, “3—look how many: 1…2…3…4…5…6. There are six names under 3.” The adult says, “So six children here have families with three people in them.”

 

Adisa and Barbara play at the sand table and both of them fill a medium-sized container.  Adisa uses a 1 cup measuring cup to fill his container. He says it takes two cups to fill his container. Barbara says it takes 5 cups to fill her container. The caring adult talks with the children about filling the cup to the top, before dumping the sand into a large container. The adult talks about this being a fair comparison. Each child take turns filling the 1 cup measuring cup. Each agrees that the other filled it to the top. They take turns dumping a cup of sand into the large container, counting the number of cups - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 to fill the large container to the top.

 

During Morning Meeting, the children look at the picture schedule for the day. The teacher shows them the pictures and talks with them about the order of the class schedule. Mr. Z. says, “what comes after Morning Meeting, Julio?” Julio points to the Choice Time picture. Julio says, “We get to choose which center to play in.” Mr. Z. says, “Yes, Julio, after Morning Meeting is Choice Time.“ Maria says, “Are we going outside today?” Mr. Z says, “What does our schedule say?”  Olivia says, “Yes, here is the picture for going outdoors. We’ll go outdoors after snack.”

 

Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? model the use of language involving comparisons, such as more, less, and same amount as. (Communication, Problem Solving, Reasoning)*

? provide a variety of developmentally appropriate objects and materials for each child to compare and measure by direct and indirect comparison. (Communication, Problem Solving)*

? display information in graph form so that each child can compare activities and experiences. (Representation)*

? encourage thinking by asking open-ended questions. (Communication, Connections, Problem Solving)*

? provide lengthy amounts of uninterrupted time for active exploration and play with materials that are easily accessible.

? provide opportunities to measure and weigh with non-standard and standard measuring tools.

? provide a variety of standard measuring tools for children to use such as yardsticks, rulers, measuring tapes, measuring cups, balance scales, and thermometers

? model use of various measurement tools and describe what the tools measure. (Connections, Communication)*

 

*Italicized words reference the mathematical processes which are most likely addressed through these adult supports. A full definition of the five mathematical processes is found on page 228 (Alignment Overview) or access at https://iowacore.gov/content/standards-mathematical-practice.

 

* preschool standard only - measurements is not developmentally appropriate for infants and toddlers

 

 

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Area 7: Mathematics

 

 

Data Analysis - Preschool (3 - 5 years)*

 

Standard 7.5.PS Children demonstrate the process of data analysis by sorting and classifying, asking questions,

and finding answers.

 

Benchmarks: The child…

7.5.PS.1 sorts collections of objects into sets such as lines, piles, or groups by color, size, shape, or kind.

7.5.PS.2 sorts and resorts sets in a variety of ways.

7.5.PS.3 compares and orders such as most to least, same amount as, and least to most.

7.5.PS.4 sorts data into two groups such as big and not big, green and not green, and pets and not pets.

7.5.PS.5 asks questions, collects, records, and organizes data to find answers to questions.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

D’Andre sorts a collection of rocks into four piles. Ms. Lavender says, “Tell me about your groups.” D’Andre points to one pile and says, “They are rough.”  He points to another pile and says, “These are smooth.” Ms. L asks, “What about these rocks?” D’Andre says “Those are big rocks.” Ms. L. asks, “Which group has the most?” D’Andre looks and points to the smooth pile. Ms. L says, “I wonder how you can find out which group has the most?” D’Andre begins putting the smooth rocks in a straight line. Next, he puts the rough rocks in a line beside the line of

smooth rocks. He made sure that there was one smooth rock for each rough rock, until he ran out of rough rocks. He smiles and looks at Ms. L.

“See, there are more smooth rocks then rough rocks, just like I said.” Next he lines up the small rocks beside the rough rocks. Finally he lines up the big rocks beside the small rocks. Then he looks and says, “See, I put them in lines. The smooth rocks have the most, then the rough rocks, then the small rocks, then the big rocks.” Ms. L says, “You put the rocks in order from most to least”, while she points at each row. “Can you sort them a different way?” D’Andre begins grouping them into two groups of brown and not brown.

Ms. Bethany shows the children a chart with pictures of two favorite books. She asks the children to vote on the book they want her to read during group time. Each child takes his or her name card and puts it on the side, under the book, they want her to read. After each of 15 children voted, Ms. Bethany asks the children to read the chart. Maria says, “There are 10 votes for “The Mitten” and only five votes for “A Snowy Day.” Ms. Bethany writes the numeral 10 on the side with 10 votes and the numeral 5 on the side with 5 votes. Julio says, “Ten is more than five.” Ms Bethany says, “So which book should I read today?” The children say altogether, “The Mitten” because it has the most.”

 

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

* encourage children to organize (sort) collections of objects by using a variety of attributes (characteristics). (Reasoning, Communication)

* purposely describe collections in multiple ways. (Reasoning, Communication)

* ask children to group by classification groups ((sorting by characteristics). (Reasoning)

* use classroom opportunities for children to vote for preferences, respond to a question of the day, indicate attendance, etc. (Representation, Communication)

* encourage language development through the use fact-finding and preference surveys and recording responses. (Communication, Representation)

* create graphs with objects or pictures to represent data. (Representation, Communication)

* ask questions such as  “Which group has more?” or “Which group has fewer?” or  “You said these are all green. Can you find something that is not green?” or “Could this object go in your group? Why? Why not?” or “Is there another name for these objects?” (Problem solving, Communication)

* use symbols to represent data. (Representation, Communication)

 

* preschool standard only - data analysis is not developmentally appropriate for infants and toddlers

 

 

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Science

 

 

 

Area 8: Science

 

 

Scientific Investigations - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 8.1.IT: Infants and toddlers observe and wonder about the environment around them.

 

Benchmarks:

The infant or toddler…

8.1.IT.1 begins to notice objects and events in the indoor and outdoor environments.

8.1.IT.2 engages in a variety of play experiences and exploration when provided open-ended materials, such as  toys or household items that can be taken apart/put together, a container of water and various objects, seeds of different sizes/textures/shapes).

8.1.IT.3 uses one or more senses to make observations of their environment.

8.1.IT.4 reacts to changes in the environment.

8.1.IT.5 attempts to manipulate/understand his or her environment through repetitive play.

  8.1.IT.6 identifies and interacts with new objects placed in his or her environment. The toddler also…

8.1.IT.7 asks simple questions about observations of the environment using language (may be home language), behavior, and

interactions.

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Evelyn picks up a ball and inserts it in a tube. The ball easily slides through and onto the tray of her wheelchair. She smiles, picks up a larger ball, and pushes it against the end of the tube. She twists the ball and pushes harder, but it doesn’t go into the tube. She picks up a larger tube, drops the ball inside and it slides through. She says, “Yay!”

 

Todd notices the windsock on the playground is blowing to the left. He grabs the windsock and pulls the other direction. He shrieks with excitement when he lets go and it goes back to the left. He repeats several times and chooses to repeat this again the next day.

 

Axel observes a beetle in a container at the sensory table. He turns on the light and the beetle digs down into the dirt. Axel says “Oh, the light scared him!”

 

Arieliz spends a majority of her choice time playing with sponges in the water table for several minutes. When it is time to clean up, she notices and

comments to a trusted adult, “My fingers are all wrinkled up!”

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

* provide a variety of items that will appeal to the children that use texture, sounds, smells, and light; and encourage them to safely touch, smell,

shake, and explore the items.

* observe children’s interactions with objects and events, and model the use of language to label objects and events.

* move them to various spaces to provide opportunities to safely explore the environment, such as mats, and appropriate small steps and climbers.

* provide a variety of items made of larger and smaller pieces, or smaller items in larger containers, so they can explore structure, space, function, and sound.

* encourage infants and toddlers to make observations and to ask questions; and use words such as “I notice...” and “I wonder….” to support

these skills.

* set up and frequently change or modify learning centers for children to explore a variety of objects and materials, such as blocks of all sizes and shapes, tubes, ramps, pulleys, ropes, and boxes; and provide learning centers that match topics in which children indicated interest.

* involve infants and toddlers in activities that include transformation of materials, such as cooking and painting.

* draw attention of infants and toddlers to aspects of the natural and designed world, and ask open-ended questions to promote children’s

awareness such as “What do you think happened to the snowball we left on the table?”

* model and describe their actions while using simple tools to investigate and/or observe various objects, such as using a magnifying glass to look at a shell.

* use outdoor space as a learning environment; bring materials outside that enable children to investigate their natural world, such as cups, shovels, wind chimes and wind socks, and containers to gather insects or soils; and allow children to bring items indoors to begin investigations.

* read aloud from a variety of books ,including both fiction and nonfiction, that feature aspects of the natural world or involve using science to

solve a problem.

 

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Area 8: Science

 

 

Scientific Investigations - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 8.1.PS Children gather information and conduct investigations to address their wonderings and test solutions to problems.

 

Benchmarks: The child…

8.1.PS.1 asks questions about his or her environment, and begins to identify and look for information that will help answer those questions or solve problems.

8.1.PS.2 plans and conducts simple investigations alone or in collaboration with other children to answer questions or to design solutions to scientific or engineering problems.

8.1.PS.3 begins to use appropriate scientific tools and technology to conduct investigations, including scales, tape measure, magnifying glass, tweezers, and eye dropper.

8.1.PS.4 observes, investigates, and describes objects, materials, and other physical science phenomena in the classroom and outdoor environments such as shadows or reflections.

8.1.PS.5 observes, investigates, and describes the characteristics, behavior, and habitats of living things.

8.1.PS.6 asks questions based on observations of weather-related phenomena and begins to notice relationships and patterns over time, such as it is warmer in the summer and colder in the winter.

8.1PS.7 develops an awareness of nature through the exploration of natural environments and materials or through caring for animals or plants.

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Roberta blows bubbles with pipe cleaners. She asks the caring adult, “Can I blow a square bubble, if I make the pipe cleaner into a square?” The adult encourages her to change the shape of the pipe cleaner and to try again. “It still doesn’t work!” stated Roberta, “How can I make it work?” The adult asks Roberta “What do you think we need?” Roberta says , “Something hard and less bendy so the shape stays strong.” Together they looked for the desired tool to dip.

Children plant seeds in cups with wet paper towels. After five days some have roots, others have roots and stems, and some haven't done anything. The adult asks children to compare the different cups and, John says "Four of them didn't grow yet" and Marianne says "Three have strings coming from the bottom but nothing on top.”

 

 

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Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark (continued):

Daniel notices and comments on the presence of a spider web on the playground. The caring adult encourages Daniel to make a drawing of the spider web. Daniel is disappointed because he can tell there are smaller pieces to the web, but can’t see them. His adult models the use of a magnifying glass. Daniel then uses the magnifying glass to investigate a spider web and to revise his drawing. The next day, Daniel notices there are bits of what looks like a bug in the spider web and asks “I wonder why there is a bug in the spider web?”

 

Maria uses molding and wooden balls. She lines up the molding and sets the ball on top. The ball does not move. Maria watches the other children using ramps, she decides to prop the ramp against a chair rung and tries again. This time the ball rolls down. The adult tells Maria “What did you discover? Now what can you do?” Maria says, “I will make it longer!”

 

While making playdough with the adult, Anna said, “It doesn’t stick together like our other playdough did.” With the adult’s help, they looked at the recipe and realized they needed to add oil and water to the mixture. They added the wet ingredients and stirred the mixture again. Michael said, “Now it sticks.  We had to use all the ingredients to make it work.”

 

While out for a walk with other children, Caden notices when he moves his arm the dark spot on the ground moves too. He tells the group “Look at this. When I move, my shadow moves, too”. The adult uses Caden’s excitement and asks “What do you notice about how your shadow moves?” Caden says, “I think my shadow copies everything I do! Look, I bet if I jump my shadow will jump too! We can all jump and see if all our shadows so the same thing.”

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? provide multiple opportunities for children to observe, ask questions, experiment, play, and develop their own understandings of living things and nonliving objects in their indoor and outdoor environments.

? observe what children notice, point to, or handle as children work to find an answer to a question or a solution to a problem, and ask

questions such as “What did you notice when…?.”

? provide a variety of tools such as balances, rulers, measuring cups, magnifying glasses, divided trays, and technology, and model and encourage the use of the tools for exploration.

? supply a variety of open-ended materials such unit blocks, tracks, locking blocks, and loose parts for children to design and engineer their own technology as they tinker and play with the materials.

? encourage each child to engage in scientific exploration and investigations, and to use adaptive devices, as needed, to help each child

participate.

? foster children’s creative and critical thinking, and problem solving through everyday tasks such as cooking, constructing, doing chores, completing tasks, gardening, or planning a trip.

? use the outdoors as a classroom and provide frequent opportunities for science learning and engineering at school and in the community

through outdoor play, participation in summer programs, or trips to parks, museums, zoos, and nature centers.

? involve children and their families to gather collections of materials they find in their natural or designed world such as something that spins.

 

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Area 8: Science

 

 

Scientific Reasoning -  Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

 

Standard 8.2.IT: Infants and toddlers use reasoning to make sense of information in their environment.

 

Benchmarks:

The infant or toddler…

8.2.IT.1 uses trusted relationships to gain understanding of the living and non-living world.

8.2.IT.2 explores cause and effect relationships by engaging in problem solving through trial and error.

The toddler also…

8.2.IT.3 shows understanding of object permanence (that people exist when they cannot be seen and objects exist even when out of sight).

8.2.IT.4 makes a choice to reach a desired outcome.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

A basket of pinecones is set out for exploration. Alyson is not sure of the item and looks to a trusted adult for support.  The adult picks up the pine cone and explains to Alyson that the pine cone is from a tree, and is bumpy and smooth. The adult offers the pinecone to Alyson. Alyson, still unsure, resists. The trusted adult sets the pine cone on the ground for Alyson to pick up on her own. Alyson looks up at the trusted adult again, and with additional support and encouragement, picks up the pine cone.

 

Farheem pushes the large button on his toy and the toy lights up and plays a short tune. He giggles and pushes the button again.

 

Dylan is at the easel with red and yellow paint in front of him. He paints a red line, a yellow circle and then chooses to mix the red and yellow paint.

When he makes the next line, he excitedly exclaims, “Orange!”

 

Miguel plays in the sensory table. He pours a large container of water into a small container and the water overflows. Miguel pours the water from the small container into the large container, and it doesn’t spill. He continues to fill the large container using water from the small container.

 

Cho Wei rolls a ball across the floor and watches it go under a cupboard. He looks under the cupboard to find the ball.

 

Lisa plays with the outdoor scale. She tries to make one side touch the ground. There are two rocks still on the ground - one big and one small. She sets the small rock in the scale bucket. It does not lower the bucket. She adds the final rock and the bucket moves.

 

 

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? provide a variety of materials for play which invite open-ended exploration and problem solving.

? allow children to grapple with useful problems instead of solving problems for them.

? allow and encourage repetitive activities, such as dropping and picking up objects, or playing games such as “Peek-a-boo” with each child.

? allow free exploration, with supervision, of safe, natural, culturally appropriate materials such as leaves, grass, snow, or food materials.

? describe natural events, such as a squirrel running on the lawn or climbing a tree, or a bird flying overhead.

? encourage curiosity by providing a variety of play experiences within inside and outside environments, and taking indoor activities outside and taking outdoor activities inside.

? describe children’s actions and discoveries to help them understand thought processes.

 

 

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Area 8: Science

 

 

Scientific Reasoning - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 8.2.PS Children use reasoning to make sense of information and design solutions to problems in their environment.

 

Benchmarks: The child…

8.2.PS.1 begins to make comparisons and to categorize nonliving things based on characteristics she or he can observe, such as texture, color, size, shape, temperature, sound, odor, usefulness, and weight.

8.2.PS.2 uses information from investigations to identify similarities and differences in characteristics and behavior of living things and to make inferences about needs and how to meet needs such as caterpillars eat leaves.

8.2.PS.3 uses prior experiences and/or data from observations to identify patterns in how living and nonliving things stay the same or change over time and/or when conditions change such as plants grow with the proper amounts of water and light; combine substances; heat/cool an item; and baby animals generally resemble their parents.

8.2.PS.4 begins to identify ways humans positively and negatively impact the environment such as beginning awareness of conservation and respect for the environment, based on investigations.

8.2.PS.5 describes and compares the properties and motions of objects in terms of speed and direction, based on exploration,

such as faster, down, and beside; and begins to notice cause and effect relationships such as a ball rolls faster on a steeper incline.

8.2.PS.6 begins to notice patterns such as differences in weather in different seasons, and how different types of weather

influence people and the environment, based on long-term explorations of weather and observations of the earth and sky.

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Trevon and Tanajah roll a large glass marble and a rubber ball of roughly the same diameter down a ramp, trying to knock down a block at the bottom. When Trevon rolls the marble, it knocks the block over, but when he rolls the ball, it bounces off the block. Trevon says, “I think the marble knocked the block down because it’s heavier than the ball.” Tanajah suggests, “Let’s weigh them and see.” Together, they take the

marble and the ball to the balance scale.

 

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Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark (continued):

Annalee and Jamal run outdoors. They stop by an adult and say, “We’ve been running fast!” The adult says, “I can tell. I’m sure all that running made your heart beat fast. Can you feel it?” The caring adult shows them where to place their hands on their chests to feel their heart beating.   The adult says, “I wonder what other things you can do to make your heart beat fast?”  Jamal said, ‘Maybe jumping like this.” Annalee adds, “Or we could skip like this.”

 

Cruz and an adult pick green beans to fill one bucket and cucumbers to fill another bucket. Cruz notices the cucumber bucket is heavier than the green bean bucket even though there are only a few cucumbers in it.  He asks the adult, “Why is the cucumber bucket so heavy?”  The adult pulls out one green bean and one cucumber, and hands them to Cruz to compare.  The adult asks several questions and Cruz says, “The cucumber is a lot heavier than the  green bean. I’m so strong I bet I could carry a whole bucket full of cucumbers. You can carry the green bean bucket because it will be lighter.”

 

Everly brings three rocks from home. She gives them to the adult. The adult picks six other rocks from the rock basket in the discovery center and together they identify patterns such as size, color, and texture, and sort the rocks by one of the patterns.

 

Robby and Sarah play outside with their toy cars. They notice the cars go faster on the sidewalk and slower in the grass. They decide to test their idea that cars will move faster on the wood around the sandbox than they will in the sandbox. They try their idea and talk to an adult about their discoveries.

 

 

Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

? provide a variety of natural materials such as shells, rocks, and seeds, and living things such as plants and animals, and encourage each child to explore, to compare, to describe, and to classify them.

? provide opportunities for children to make predictions, to test the predictions, and to compare what happens with what they thought would happen.

? encourage children to think and talk about prior experiences they had with objects, materials, and organisms in other settings and situations.

? encourage children to express their ideas about how and why things happen the way they do, and to use their ideas, whether scientifically correct or incorrect, as the basis for ongoing investigation.

? model a variety of strategies to solve problem  and encourage each child to use problem solving strategies.

? refrain from solving a problem for a child that is within the child’s ability to solve on his or her own.

 

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Area 8: Science

 

Scientific Communication - Infant and Toddler (birth - 3 years)

 

Standard 8.3.IT: Infants and toddlers share information and understanding about experiences in their environment.

 

Benchmarks:

The infant or toddler…

8.3.IT.1 produces questions using gestures and/or facial expressions.

8.3.IT.2 expresses vocalizations and gestures to gain attention from others.

8.3.IT.3 shows repetitive actions to demonstrate new learning experiences.

 

The toddler also…

8.3.IT.4 composes simple verbal questions in English or home language.

8.3.IT.5 responds verbally to other’s questions or statements in English or home language.

8.3.IT.6 draws pictures to represent his or her observations of objects and/or of changes to objects or the environment.

 

 

Examples of Reaching an Infant/Toddler Benchmark:

Ainsley points and looks at the caring adult when she sees a shadow. As Ainsley moves, the shadow moves. As she continues to watch the shadow move, she shrugs her shoulders and looks back at the adult as if asking, “What is that?”

 

Aiden giggles and points as he throws the ball and sees it light up. Aiden makes noise to gain attention from the adult.

 

Cora discovers she can turn the light on and off by pushing the switch up and down. After she makes this discovery, she repeatedly pushes the switch up and down to communicate her new learning.

 

While outside, Destiny hears a noise and asks the adult, “What is that knocking noise?” The adult asks her, “What types of things might make that noise?” Destiny responds by mentioning “a hammer,” or “a tree branch on the side of a building,” or “a friend hitting a stick on the swing set.” The adult responds, “Yes, it may be one of those things. Do you think it could be a bird?” In checking each of the possibilities, Destiny also looks to the trees near her. She sees the bird in one of the trees and turns back to the adult and says, “Look!  It is a bird in the tree!” The adult responds, “Yes, that bird is called a woodpecker.  It pecks at the tree, which makes that sound. We can find out more about woodpeckers in a book we have in our classroom.”

 

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Adult Supports - With children birth - 3 years, caring adults:

? provide a variety of age-appropriate materials for play to invite open-ended language opportunities.

? describe natural events, such as a squirrel running on the lawn or climbing a tree, or a bird flying overhead.

? intentionally engage with each child many times throughout the day in opportunities for extended dialogue by describing their discoveries and experiences.

? model observation and comparison using verbal descriptions, drawings, and labels of those drawings.

? assist children’s acquisition and use of basic science terms and science vocabulary about topics through access to nonfiction books, audio materials, video materials, and electronic media.

? provide daily activity reflections with families and encourage families to visit about the topics with their children.

 

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Area 8: Science

 

Scientific Communications - Preschool (3 - 5 years)

 

Standard 8.3.PS Children share information and understanding about experiences in their environment.

 

 

Benchmarks: The child…

8.3.PS.1 shares observations and ideas about the properties and behavior of nonliving and living things through a variety of modalities such as language, drawing, modeling, gesturing, and dramatizing.

8.3.PS.2 obtains, evaluates, and uses age-appropriate text and online resources, with support, to gather information related to a topic of study and makes connections to observations and experiences such as when studying butterflies, children may evaluate a variety of books and begin to identify which books are most useful for learning about real butterflies.

8.3.PS.3 begins to ask questions of others to seek more information on a topic, and participates in generating questions to ask a visiting expert on a topic of interest.

8.3.PS.4 offers evidence to explain the thought process he or she used to make conclusions or claims, and listens to the claims, conclusions, and evidence of others to begin to identify areas of agreement and disagreement.

8.3.PS.5 participates in creating a final product such as a panel, classroom book, or newsletter that communicates what was learned during one exploration or during the study of a topic over time, and contributes through language, drawing, writing, or choosing items to include.

 

 

 

Examples of Reaching a Preschool Benchmark:

Diego walks through the park and notices the pond with squirrels running around it. He mentions to an adult in the group and asks, “Where do the squirrels sleep at night?” Then he notices a turtle, “Does the turtle sleep in the same house? I wonder if squirrels and turtles have a bed like I do? Do we have any books about squirrels and turtles in our classroom? I want to read one!”

 

Suzanna digs in the dirt outside and finds three worms. She takes the worms to an adult and says, “Look I have three worms. They are all wiggly.

They are a family.” When they go back inside, Suzanna uses some brown pipe cleaners to show her classmates how the worms moved and

wiggled.

 

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Malea and Amaad notice a bird eating from the bird feeder. Amaad asks the caring adult, “What is that bird called?” The adult replies, “I don’t

know. I wonder how we can find out?”   Amaad said, “My grandpa works at the zoo and knows all about birds. Maybe we can ask him.”

 

Children observe butterfly life cycles and dramatize the concept using their bodies. The children model the caterpillar by wiggling around on the ground and then climb into a long play tunnel to represent the chrysalis. Inside, they put on two scarves and emerge from the tunnel as a butterfly. This remains as a station for several days so children can continue to perform this dramatization alone and with other children.  The children evaluate several books and begin to identify which books are most helpful to learn about butterflies.

 

Children explore a variety of changes, including ice melting into water, mixing baking soda and vinegar to create a ‘volcano,’ mixing the ingredients and baking cupcakes, and taking two colors and mixing to make a different color. After each child receives the opportunity to explore these changes, the group discusses their observations. The adult assists the children to create a book to describe their observations about how and why things change.

 

Francisco asks the construction foreman how cement is mixed to make a sidewalk and how it gets hard so he can walk or ride his bicycle on it. He asks if parking lots are made the same way.

 

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Adult Supports - With children 3 - 5 years, caring adults:

* provide age-appropriate books and online resources to inspire and extend children’s direct investigations.

* ask questions and engage in discussions about how different types of local environments provide homes for different kinds of living things.

* facilitate conversations between children and encourage children to share their experiences, observations, and ideas with others in ‘science talks’ and to use photos, drawings, models, and demonstration.

* break down complex questions or describe children's actions and thinking to support language use and to support each child’s

participation in all aspects of investigation.

* engage in discussion and raise questions about how humans uses local resources to meet their needs and the impact of people’s

activities, both positive and negative, on the local environment.

* support children to express and communicate experiences, observations, and ideas in a variety of ways including using language, demonstration, and props, photos, and/or their own drawings.

* compare the external body parts of animals, including humans, and parts of plants, using descriptions and drawings, to create explanations about how the parts help the animal or plant get its needs met.

* discuss ideas, using evidence, about what makes an object roll, slide, or stay in place, and how to control some movements.

* model thinking out loud and talking about ideas and observations.

* Introduce and use rich vocabulary, including nouns, verbs, and descriptive words, to talk with children about the children’s observations and discoveries.

* provide a variety of ways for children to record data, including drawing, painting, making three-dimensional structures, writing, and developing  group charts and lists; and introduce and use science notebooks for children to record observations over time.

* use adaptive devices, as needed, to allow each child to participate in conversations.

* provide support for children to create a final product, such as a panel, a class book, or a newsletter, to communicate what was learned while observing snails or building tower of straws, etc.

* invite visitors with a science or engineering-related vocation or hobby to discuss or demonstrate what they do and what equipment or tools they use.

 

Standards, Benchmarks, Examples, and Adult Supports – page 135 of 135

 

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